自然资源学报 ›› 2020, Vol. 35 ›› Issue (4): 884-894.doi: 10.31497/zrzyxb.20200411

• 研究论文 • 上一篇    下一篇

鲁尔关税同盟矿区转型研究:多主体治理的经验借鉴

张楚琳1, 刘云刚2   

  1. 1. 中山大学地理科学与规划学院,广州 510275;
    2. 华南师范大学地理科学学院,广州 510631
  • 收稿日期:2018-12-28 出版日期:2020-04-28 发布日期:2020-04-28
  • 通讯作者: 刘云刚(1973- ),男,内蒙古呼和浩特人,博士,教授,博士生导师,研究方向为城市地理学、政治地理学、生活空间论。E-mail: ygliu@scnu.edu.cn
  • 作者简介:张楚琳(1996- ),女,广东惠州人,硕士,研究方向为资源型城市发展、城市与区域规划。E-mail: gwzhangchl@foxmail.com
  • 基金资助:
    国家自然科学基金项目(41571130,41271165); 关税同盟煤矿基金会对外交流办公室负责人; 北威州工业遗迹和历史文化保护基金会; (由州政府与RAG集团共同成立); 关税同盟第十二号矿区公司&关税同盟煤矿基金会&工业遗产管理基金会; 关税同盟煤矿基金会; RAG基金会、北威州基金会等基金会组织,矿区友好协会等合作组织提供部分资金支持; 关税同盟煤矿基金会运作; 工业遗迹和历史文化保护基金会、IBA项目团队、工业遗产管理基金会、关税同盟煤矿基金会等协助改造、管理; 关税同盟煤矿基金会统一管理,并与其他组织合作

The transformation of Zeche Zollverein in the Ruhr area: Experience of multi-agent governance

ZHANG Chu-lin1, LIU Yun-gang2   

  1. 1. School of Geography and Planning, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou 510275, China;
    2. School of Geography, South China Normal University, Guangzhou 510631, China
  • Received:2018-12-28 Online:2020-04-28 Published:2020-04-28

摘要: 工业区转型一直备受关注,德国鲁尔区是其中最为典型的案例之一。选取鲁尔区关税同盟矿区为研究对象,基于实地考察和半结构式访谈,剖析其转型过程中的多主体参与机制,总结其治理框架发现:在多渠道的资金投入、矿区工业文化的保护与开发、建筑与环境的更新改造、日常运营与管理及社区生活与空间活化等方面,政府自上而下管理与适度放权相结合扮演支柱角色,社会公众在分担公共事务与参与公共生活过程中活化社会空间,市场主体的自身发展与矿区转型形成良性循环。三类主体活跃互动,其多主体协作治理的经验值得借鉴。我国在工业区转型过程中,政府可尝试脱离“全能包办”的思想,将部分职能释放予社会和市场,吸引其主动进入和发展,共同推动区域转型。

关键词: 鲁尔区, 转型, 多主体治理, 关税同盟矿区

Abstract: Transformation of industrial districts has attracted much attention for long. The Ruhr area in Germany, which used to be a pillar of the industrial economy in the past and is a robust cultural and economic region now, is always a typical case. Based on field visits and semi-structured interviews, this paper takes Zeche Zollverein in Ruhr as an example, trying to find out how multiple agents take part in and cooperate with each other during its transformation and to summarize its mechanism of multi-agent governance. It is found that during the transformation in Zeche Zollverein, administrative, social and market powers actively participate and interact in the protection and development of industrial culture, financing and investment, renovation of buildings and environment, daily operation and management as well as social life and space activation. In the framework of multi-agent cooperation in Zeche Zollverein, different levels of governments combine top-down management and moderate decentralization, acting as a backbone; the public are important elements in the activation of social life while social organizations share public affairs with governments and citizens enjoy participating in public activities; market economies form a virtuous circle between their self-development and the regional transformation. From single subject controlling to multi-agent cooperation, the transformation of governance framework in Zeche Zollverein is a remarkable enlightenment for industrial districts in China. Under the realistic conditions of our country with Chinese characteristics, governments tend to be responsible for every stuff in cities and get overburdened. Learning from Zeche Zollverein, they can try to break away from the idea of "all-around arrangement", and to cooperate more with and release some functions to the society and the market, attracting them to locate in the district and develop themselves on their own initiatives, so as to promote regional transformation jointly.

Key words: Zeche Zollverein, multi-agent governance, transformation, Ruhr area