自然资源学报 ›› 2020, Vol. 35 ›› Issue (3): 513-531.doi: 10.31497/zrzyxb.20200302

• “国土空间生态修复”专栏 • 上一篇    下一篇

资源环境承载力评估新视角:行星边界框架的源起、发展与展望

陈先鹏1, 方恺1, 彭建2, 刘爱原3   

  1. 1. 浙江大学公共管理学院,杭州 310058;
    2. 北京大学城市与环境学院,地表过程分析与模拟教育部重点实验室,北京 100871;
    3. 集美大学图书馆,厦门 361021
  • 收稿日期:2019-02-15 修回日期:2019-07-16 出版日期:2020-03-28 发布日期:2020-03-28
  • 通讯作者: 方恺(1986- ),男,浙江杭州人,博士,研究员,博士生导师,研究方向为资源环境管理与政策。E-mail: fangk@zju.edu.cn
  • 作者简介:陈先鹏(1987- ),男,浙江长兴人,博士研究生,研究方向为资源环境承载力。E-mail: chenxp@zju.edu.cn
  • 基金资助:
    中国科学院战略性先导科技专项(XDA20040400); 国家自然科学基金项目(71704157); 浙江省杰出青年科学基金项目(LR19G030001); 浙江省哲学社会科学规划“之江青年课题”(19ZJQN02YB)

New insights into assessing the carrying capacity of resources and the environment: The origin, development and prospects of the planetary boundaries framework

CHEN Xian-peng1, FANG Kai1, PENG Jian2, LIU Ai-yuan3   

  1. 1. School of Public Affairs, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310058, China;
    2. Laboratory for Earth Surface Processes, Ministry of Education, College of Urban and Environmental Sciences, Peking University, Beijing 100871, China;
    3. Library of Jimei University, Xiamen 361021, Fujian, China
  • Received:2019-02-15 Revised:2019-07-16 Online:2020-03-28 Published:2020-03-28

摘要: 将人类活动规模与强度控制在自然生态系统可承载限度之内,是可持续发展理论的核心要义。行星边界框架所秉持的“地球系统观”,为资源环境承载力评估提供了新视角,一经提出便在国际可持续发展领域引发极大关注与热烈讨论。本文系统阐述了行星边界框架的理论基础及其内涵演进,着重论述了该框架在国家、省域、市域和组织等不同尺度的发展与应用,深入探讨了其面临的挑战与改进方向,并与传统资源环境承载力研究范式进行了比较。研究表明:行星边界框架以复杂系统稳态和突变理论为基础,是历史经验与科学研究有机结合的产物。作为对现有资源环境承载力评估体系的有益补充,该框架由全球尺度向区域尺度拓展时,遵循自上而下分配与自下而上整合两条路径。当前行星边界框架中关于生物物理过程的尺度效应与交互机制的阐述较为薄弱,导致其变量选取与边界设置仍存较大争议,在与环境影响评价相整合、向社会经济维度拓展等方面面临方法学挑战。今后应从理论基础、技术方法、实践应用等方面继续深化研究,提升行星边界框架在可持续发展目标(SDGs)等全球重大公共议题中的政策价值。

关键词: 阈值, 承载力, 行星边界, 生物物理过程, 尺度

Abstract: Maintaining the magnitude and intensity of human activities within the carrying capacity of resources and the environment is the core of the sustainable development theory. Therefore, how to assess the carrying capacity in a scientific way receives top priority among sustainability development strategies. The Planetary Boundaries Framework (PBF) that takes into account the Earth system as a whole provides new insights into assessing the carrying capacity of resources and the environment. The PBF has attracted considerable attentions and discussions within the sustainability science since its first appearance in the literature. However, the opportunities and challenges facing the PBF remain largely unexplored by the scientific community. This paper aims to fill in this gap by elaborating on the theoretical basis of the PBF and its conceptual evolution, revisiting the development and applications of the framework at the national, provincial, urban and organizational scales, identifying the challenges that the framework is facing and the solutions, and comparing the framework with the traditional paradigm for assessing the carrying capacity of resources and the environment. As a combination of historical experiences and scientific studies based on the theory of stable states and catastrophe in complex systems, the PBF serves as a useful supplement to the present assessments of carrying capacity. Primarily the downscaling of PBF to sub-global scales can be achieved through either top-down allocation or bottom-up integration. A systematic understanding of the linkages between these two pathways and their potential synergies would be of crucial significance to the development of the framework. However, we observe that there is a lack of clarity and transparency in the PBF regarding the scaling properties and interactions between various biophysical processes, leading to arguments over variables selection and boundaries setting. Besides, methodological challenges appear when we integrate PBF with tools for environmental impact assessment, such as environmental footprints and life cycle assessment, and extending the framework to socioeconomic dimensions. Therefore, there is a need for a deeper understanding of the PBF with respect to its theoretical basis, technical approaches and practical applications, so as to enhance the policy-guiding value of the framework as an approach to address the world's major public issues such as achieving Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs).

Key words: planetary boundaries, scale, biophysical process, threshold, carrying capacity