自然资源学报 ›› 2020, Vol. 35 ›› Issue (2): 425-437.doi: 10.31497/zrzyxb.20200214

• 研究论文 • 上一篇    下一篇

国际水法对长江流域立法的启示和意义

胡德胜1, 孙睿恒1, 许胜晴2   

  1. 1. 重庆大学法学院,重庆 400044;
    2. 西北大学法学院,西安 710127
  • 收稿日期:2019-06-05 修回日期:2019-11-05 出版日期:2020-02-28 发布日期:2020-02-28
  • 通讯作者: 许胜晴(1988- ),男,山东邹城人,博士,讲师,主要从事资源环境政策与法律、国际法与比较法研究。E-mail: shengqingxusd@126.com
  • 作者简介:胡德胜(1965- ),男,河南卫辉人,博士,教授,博士生导师,主要从事国际法和比较法、资源环境和能源科学政策法律研究。E-mail: deshenghu@126.com
  • 基金资助:
    国家社会科学基金项目(16BFX151)

Enlightenment from international water law and its values to the legislation on the Yangtze River Basin

HU De-sheng1, SUN Rui-heng1, XU Sheng-qing2   

  1. 1. Law School, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400044, China;
    2. Law School, Northwest University, Xi'an 710127, China
  • Received:2019-06-05 Revised:2019-11-05 Online:2020-02-28 Published:2020-02-28

摘要: 随着长江经济带建设的推进,长江流域治理亟待法治化。由于调整对象、事项和目标方面的相似性,国际水法的理论、原则、规则和实践对于长江流域立法具有重要且有益的参考价值。长江流域立法面临着利益主体多元、生态环境和资源保护任务艰巨以及治理体制机制很不合理三个方面的巨大挑战。国际水法关于生态整体性路径、公平合理利用原则以及流域治理体制机制三个基本方面的理论、法律和指南以及实践,对于长江流域立法有效应对这些挑战具有重要启示。其意义体现在:直接促进长江流域治理的法治化,间接推进中国流域立法与国际水法之间的兼容性;直接示范国内其他流域,间接助推实现我国成为全球生态文明建设重要参与者、贡献者和引领者的战略。

关键词: 长江, 流域立法, 国际水法, 流域治理

Abstract: The rise and fall of civilizations depend on ecosystems, and the birth and existence of ecosystems are based on water. The Yangtze River Basin is the largest river basin in China, and has important economic, social and ecological functions. With the advancement of the construction of the "Four Belts" (a global influential inland river economic belt, a coordinated development belt with East-Middle-West interaction and cooperation, and an internal and external open belt with all-round promotion along coast-river-border, and a pioneer demonstration belt of ecological civilization construction) in the Yangtze River Economic Zone under the concept of ecological civilization, it is urgent to establish an effective river basin governance system for the Yangtze River Basin under the rule of law. Due to similarities of the objects, items and targets that are adjusted, the theories, principles, rules and practices of international water law are of important and beneficial referential value for the legislation on the Yangtze River Basin. The legislation on the Basin faces three key challenges, i.e., i) an arduous task to protect its eco-environment and resources, ii) multi-stakeholders, and, iii) a very unreasonable governance system and mechanism. The theories, rules, guidelines and practices of international water law on ecological integrity path, principle of equitable and reasonable utilization, and river basin governance system and mechanism, are helpful to deal with these challenges effectively and efficiently. The inspirations from these theories, rules, guidelines and practices tell us that, the legislation on the Basin should, (i) define the relevant content clearly, so as to reflect the ecologically integrated path; (ii) recognize the principle of equitable and reasonable utilization, and transplant it to a certain extent or absorb its essence, and enumerate in a non-exhaustive way that the relevant factors affect equitable and reasonable utilization; (iii) let the proposed "Yangtze River Basin Management Organization" play a basic, core and dominant role in the institutional and mechanism system of the river basin management. Their significant values include the following: promoting the realization of the harmonious, coordinated and sustainable development as well as the legalization of governance in the Basin, and further promoting the compatibility between China's river basin legislation and international water law; scientifically demonstrating and developing the above three basic aspects of international water law through China's practice so as to set a good example for other domestic river basins, as well as promoting implementation of the great strategy of China's endeavor to be an important participant, contributor and leader during the process of constructing global ecological civilization.

Key words: river basin governance, international water law, Yangtze River, river basin legislation