自然资源学报 ›› 2020, Vol. 35 ›› Issue (1): 68-81.doi: 10.31497/zrzyxb.20200107

• 研究论文 • 上一篇    下一篇

西部生态脆弱区矿山不同开采强度下生态系统服务时空变化——以神府矿区为例

肖武1,2, 张文凯2,3, 吕雪娇2, 王新静4   

  1. 1. 浙江大学公共管理学院,杭州 310058;
    2. 中国矿业大学(北京)土地复垦与生态重建研究所,北京 100083;
    3. 山西省煤炭地质物探测绘院资源环境与灾害监测山西省重点实验室,晋中 030600;
    4. 华北水利水电学院测绘与地理信息学院,郑州 450045
  • 收稿日期:2019-10-15 修回日期:2019-11-29 出版日期:2020-01-28 发布日期:2020-01-28
  • 作者简介:肖武(1983- ),男,湖南涟源人,博士,研究员,研究方向为国土综合整治与生态修复。E-mail: xiaowuwx@126.com
  • 基金资助:

    国家自然科学基金项目(41501562); 国家重点实验室2016年开放基金课题(SHJT-16-30.16); 山西省重点研发计划项目(201803D31224)

Spatio-temporal patterns of ecological capital under different mining intensities in an ecologically fragile mining area in Western China: A case study of Shenfu mining area

XIAO Wu1,2, ZHANG Wen-kai2,3, LYU Xue-jiao2, WANG Xin-jing4   

  1. 1. School of Public Affairs, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310029, China;
    2. Institute of Land Reclamation and Ecological Restoration, China University of Mining and Technology (Beijing), Beijing 100083, China;
    3. Shanxi Key Laboratory of Resources, Environment and Disaster Monitoring, Shanxi Coal Geology Geophysical Surveying Exploration Institute, Jinzhong 030600, Shanxi, China;
    4. North China University of Water Resources and Electric Power, Zhengzhou 450045, China
  • Received:2019-10-15 Revised:2019-11-29 Online:2020-01-28 Published:2020-01-28

摘要:

以神府矿区为例,选取土地利用、植被覆盖、土壤、气象等生态环境与统计数据指标,利用RS和GIS技术构建生态系统服务遥感测量评估指标体系,评估研究区2005-2015年生态系统服务变化及时空分布特征,进一步探究神府矿区不同开采强度对生态系统服务的影响并进行驱动力分析。研究结果表明:(1)2005年、2010年、2015年研究区的总生态系统服务分别为1.598×1010元、1.905×1010元、2.134×1010元,呈现逐年递增的趋势;(2)生态系统服务功能中水土保持价值比例最大,草地的单位面积生态系统服务价值最高,耕地、草地生态系统为该地区贡献了最多的生态系统服务价值;(3)研究区生态系统服务分布表现为由东北向西南逐渐降低的趋势,不同开采强度下的生态系统服务增长变化较为相似,煤炭开采区域生态系统服务未显著下降,整体较为平稳。对生态系统服务变化的驱动分析表明在近年来相对改善的气候环境与人工修复共同作用下,神府矿区生态系统服务未发生明显的缩减。此类半干旱生态脆弱矿区国土空间生态修复适宜通过主动的“保护性开发”以及“人工诱导+自然修复”为主的方式,避免大范围与高强度的水土扰动型治理,通过适度的人为干预保证与维持区域内生态系统服务的功能。研究成果不但揭示高强度煤矿开采下的生态环境变化,也对西部生态脆弱区环境做了定量评估;同时,为将来的矿区重建提供了重要的依据。

关键词: 遥感定量评估, 生态系统服务, 神府矿区, 开采强度, 植被净初级生产力

Abstract:

Taking Shenfu mining area as an example, this paper selects the ecological environment and statistical data indicators such as land use, vegetation coverage, soil, and meteorology, and then using RS and GIS technology to build an ecosystem service remote sensing measurement and evaluation index system. On this basis, we assess the characteristics of changes in ecosystem services and the spatial and temporal distribution of the study area from 2005 to 2015, and further explore the impact and driving force analysis of ecosystem services under different mining intensities in the Shenfu mining area. The results show that: (1) The total ecosystem services in the study area in 2005, 2010 and 2015 were 1.598×1010 yuan, 1.905×1010 yuan and 2.134×1010 yuan, respectively, showing an increasing trend yearly. (2) The proportion of soil and water conservation value is the largest in ecosystem service functions. The per unit area of grassland has the highest ecosystem service value. Cultivated land and grassland ecosystems have contributed the most ecosystem service value to the region. (3) The distribution of ecosystem services in the study area shows a gradual decrease from northeast to southwest. The growth and changes of ecosystem services under different mining intensities are similar. The impact of coal mining activities on the ecological environment in the study area is generally increasing, and the overall situation is relatively stable. The driving analysis of changes in ecosystem services shows that, in recent years, under the combined effect of relatively improved climate and artificial restoration, ecosystem services in Shenfu mining area did not significantly decrease. The land and space ecological restoration of such semi-arid ecologically fragile mining areas is suitable to avoid large-scale and high-intensity soil and water disturbance governance through active "protective development" and "artificial induction + natural restoration". Through moderate human intervention, the function of ecosystem services in this region is guaranteed and maintained. The research results can well reflect the quality of the regional ecological environment and its changes, and can provide an important basis for regional sustainable development evaluation and ecological environment construction planning.

Key words: Shenfu mining area, quantitative remote sensing assessment, ecosystem services, mining intensity, NPP