自然资源学报 ›› 2020, Vol. 35 ›› Issue (1): 14-25.doi: 10.31497/zrzyxb.20200103

• 研究论文 • 上一篇    下一篇

景观生态学在国土空间治理中的应用

吴健生1,2, 王仰麟1,2, 张小飞1, 彭建1,2, 刘焱序3   

  1. 1. 北京大学城市规划与设计学院城市人居环境科学与技术重点实验室,深圳 518055;
    2. 北京大学城市与环境学院地表过程与模拟教育部重点实验室,北京 100871;
    3. 北京师范大学地表过程与资源生态国家重点实验室,北京 100875
  • 收稿日期:2019-06-03 修回日期:2019-11-03 出版日期:2020-01-28 发布日期:2020-01-28
  • 通讯作者: 彭建(1976- ),男,四川彭州人,博士,副教授,主要从事景观生态学、综合自然地理学研究。E-mail: jianpeng@urban.pku.edu.cn
  • 作者简介:吴健生(1965- ),男,湖南新化人,博士,教授,主要从事景观生态与土地利用研究。E-mail: wujs@pkusz.edu.cn
  • 基金资助:

    国家自然科学基金项目(41671180)

Application of landscape ecology in territory optimization

WU Jian-sheng1,2, WANG Yang-lin1,2, CHANG Hsiao-fei1, PENG Jian1,2, LIU Yan-xu3   

  1. 1. Key Laboratory for Urban Habitat Environmental Science and Technology, School of Urban Planning and Design, Peking University, Shenzhen 518055, Guangdong, China;
    2. Key Laboratory for Earth Surface Processes, Ministry of Education, College of Urban and Environmental Sciences, Peking University, Beijing 100871, China;
    3. State Key Laboratory of Earth Surface Processes and Resource Ecology, Faculty of Geographical Science, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875, China
  • Received:2019-06-03 Revised:2019-11-03 Online:2020-01-28 Published:2020-01-28

摘要:

鉴于当前国土空间治理面临复杂的人类活动与自然环境相互作用而产生的生态风险与空间利用问题,基于景观生态学学科特质与生态文明建设要求,对当前国土空间治理工作进行梳理,归纳了明确的生态系统服务定位、高效的建成空间结构、适宜且多样的产业发展支撑、多等级的生态系统服务与安全保障等国土空间治理需求。同时,整合区域时空信息的理论基础与分析手段,提出景观生态学在国土空间治理中应落脚于:(1)识别并统一不同空间尺度的治理单元;(2)辨析并评估景观功能的空间分异;(3)构建基于生态风险防范的区域景观格局; (4)识别集约高效的城乡协调发展格局;(5)提出尺度联系的绿色发展架构;(6)明晰多级多样的生态保障方案。

关键词: 景观生态学, 景观格局, 国土空间治理, 等级和尺度, 景观功能

Abstract:

Globalization and urbanization promote rapid development of countries and regions and rapid growth in the area of buildings, diversify ecological functional needs, and expand paucity in the utilization of land resources. It is greatly important to deal with problems and risks including unbalanced regional development, exhaustion of resources, decline in environmental quality, and frequent occurrence of natural disasters in the current territory optimization. The analysis of regional ecological characteristics and advancing and refining development needs based on construction standards of ecological civilization are proposed to enhance the comprehensive benefits of regional ecological services and socio-economic development. Landscape ecology involving analysis of the texture characteristics of surface space from the ecosystem perspective has a long-term effect on the scale, pattern, function, process, and linkage among them and is advantageous in systematically dealing with current problems of territory optimization at different spatial and temporal scales. The study integrates land and resources management under the background of global change from the perspective of landscape ecology and based on an understanding of ecological civilization construction. It raises the demands of the territory optimization in terms of the specific orientation of ecosystem services, efficient building area structures, suitable and diversified industrial development supports, and multi-level ecosystem services and safeguards. Based on studies on different spatial and temporal scales and landscape ecology in land space governance, the current territory optimization should focus on the following topics: (1) Identifying and unifying governance units at different spatial scales; (2) Defining and evaluating spatial variation of landscape functions; (3) Constructing landscape patterns based on ecological risk prevention; (4) Proposing an intensive and efficient plan for the coordinated development of urban and rural areas; (5) Investigating the framework of green development with multi-scale linkage; (6) Exploring multi-level and diverse ecological compensations. Additionally, the marine area included in the territory is less involved in current landscape ecological research. It should be supplemented in a follow-up study to maintain ecosystem services, improve landscape functions, and prevent ecological risk.

Key words: territory optimization, landscape ecology, multi-level and scale, landscape functions, landscape pattern