自然资源学报 ›› 2019, Vol. 34 ›› Issue (10): 2163-2174.doi: 10.31497/zrzyxb.20191012

• 编制与实践 • 上一篇    下一篇

西藏自治区生态空间的分类与范围及人类活动影响

魏子谦1,2(), 徐增让1,2(), 毛世平3   

  1. 1. 中国科学院地理科学与资源研究所,北京 100101
    2. 中国科学院大学,北京 100049
    3. 西藏自治区那曲市林业和草原局,那曲 852000
  • 收稿日期:2019-05-10 修回日期:2019-08-19 出版日期:2019-10-28 发布日期:2019-10-28
  • 作者简介:

    作者简介:魏子谦(1996- ),女,天津人,硕士,研究方向为自然资源信息科学。E-mail: weizq.18s@igsnrr.ac.cn

  • 基金资助:
    第二次青藏高原综合科学考察研究(2019QZKK060300);国家自然科学基金项目(41571496,41971263);国家重点研发计划项目(2016YFC0503403);西藏重大科技专项(Z2016C01G01/04)

Classification, scope and the impact of human activities of ecological space in Tibet Autonomous Region

WEI Zi-qian1,2(), XU Zeng-rang1,2(), MAO Shi-ping3   

  1. 1. Institute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resources Research, CAS, Beijing 100101, China
    2. University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, China
    3. Naqu Forestry and Grassland Administration, Naqu 852000, Tibet, China
  • Received:2019-05-10 Revised:2019-08-19 Online:2019-10-28 Published:2019-10-28

摘要:

生态空间的划定是落实主体功能区制度,确定三种空间、三条红线的重要环节。目前生态空间概念界定尚未有共识、分类体系仍不统一。以西藏自治区为例,探索了生态脆弱区省级生态空间分类体系构建、空间范围识别及人类活动强度模拟的方法。结果表明:(1)按照生态系统类型西藏生态空间可分为林地、草地、湿地、未利用地等4个一级类,13个二级类和29个三级类。按照管制强度可分为I级严格管制区、II级限制开发区和III级动态管制区。(2)识别得到西藏生态空间面积约为105.45万km2,占西藏总面积的87.7%,与其国家重要生态安全屏障的功能定位一致。(3)模拟了西藏人类活动强度,生态空间内受人类胁迫水平整体较弱,约92%的区域人类活动强度指数低于0.0447。本研究可为高寒生态脆弱区省级生态空间划定及管理提供科技支撑。

关键词: 国土空间, 生态空间, 分类体系, 人类活动强度, InVEST模型

Abstract:

The delimitation of ecological space is an important basis for the scientific management of territorial space and the maintenance of regional ecological security. Since the beginning of the 21st century, China has undergone an unprecedented rapid urbanization process, and the territorial spatial pattern has changed dramatically. However, during this period, a series of disorderly processes of territorial spatial development have resulted in the squeezing of ecological space and many severe regional ecological problems, such as land desertification, biodiversity reduction, ecosystem degradation, which restricts the realization of the goal of sustainable development. The definition of ecological space is mainly put forward by domestic scholars in recent years, and the corresponding concepts in other countries are ecoregion, ecological land space, and green space etc., and the classification system of ecological space is also not unified. Taking the Tibet Autonomous Region (TAR) as an example, we explored the classification system, spatial distribution, attribution of the patches, and human activities intensity of ecological space on provincial scale in the study. The results are as follows. (1) The classification system of ecological space can be composed by 3 hierarchal systems. According to various ecosystems and dominant functions, there are 4 land categories in the primary-class system, 13 sub-categories of land in the second-class system and 29 sub-categories of land in the third-class system. And according to the ecological governance intensity from the strictest regulation to the relatively relaxed regulation, ecological space can be divided into I-level, II-level and III-level areas. (2) Guided by the current spatial planning and governance system, the link between the classification system of ecological space and the existing land classification system such as the land cover and land use classification, ecosystem type was built; the spatial distribution of ecological space, and the attribution of the patches within the space was identified. Besides, the key ecosystem services functional area and the main ecological frangible area were also identified and included into the ecological space. The existing land classification system, the ecosystem services functional area and frangible ecosystem, and the various space can be integrated in GIS environment. The total ecological space of TAR is about 1054500 km2, accounting for 87.7% of the total area. (3) Finally, human activities within the ecological space in Tibet were simulated in order to control the human activities intensity of ecological space and to maintain the ecological security.

Key words: land space, ecological space, classification system, human activity intensity, InVEST model