自然资源学报 ›› 2019, Vol. 34 ›› Issue (9): 1820-1832.doi: 10.31497/zrzyxb.20190903

• 国家公园与自然保护地 • 上一篇    下一篇

从生物群落到生态系统综合保护:国家公园生态系统完整性保护的理论演变

魏钰, 雷光春   

  1. 北京林业大学自然保护区学院,北京 100083
  • 收稿日期:2019-03-02 修回日期:2019-06-15 出版日期:2019-09-28 发布日期:2019-09-28
  • 通讯作者: 雷光春(1960- ),男,湖南常德人,教授,博士生导师,主要从事湿地保护与国家公园管理研究。E-mail: guangchun.lei@foxmail.com
  • 作者简介:魏钰(1985- ),女,浙江嵊州人,博士研究生,主要从事国家公园与保护地管理研究。E-mail: yuer19852005@163.com
  • 基金资助:
    中国科学院生态环境研究中心“保护地管理体系分类”项目(2016HXFWBHQ-LGC-01)

From biocenosis to ecosystem: The theory trend of conserving ecosystem integrity in national parks

WEI Yu, LEI Guang-chun   

  1. School of Nature Conservation, Beijing Forestry University, Beijing 100083, China
  • Received:2019-03-02 Revised:2019-06-15 Online:2019-09-28 Published:2019-09-28

摘要: 自然保护事业已经进入人与自然和谐的综合保护阶段,突破传统生物群落保护的要素式思维,从生态特征、生态系统健康和自组织能力等视角系统实施生态系统完整性保护,已基本成为共识。中国经历了长期部门化割裂管理,在国家公园体制建设过程中开始由分散走向统一,要求将山水林田湖草作为生命共同体进行生态系统完整性保护。基于集合种群等空间生态学理论,提出国家公园生态系统完整性不仅意味着内部自然空间的完整,更需着眼国家生态安全的大局和自然保护地体系的战略布局。国家公园只有成为生态地理区的节点并辐射周边区域,有效平衡行政区域之间以及人与自然之间的关系,才能真正实现完整生态系统的长效保护。目前,国内既有研究在指导全域布局和平衡人地关系方面仍考虑不足,试点过程中还存在管理型技术方法欠缺、空间边界受限于行政边界、未能从全局着眼构建以国家公园为核心的生态系统完整性网络、未充分考虑差异化的人地关系等问题。未来需要着眼大局,有效平衡国家公园及其周边区域的关系、不同行政区域之间的关系、国家公园人与自然的关系,从而实现生态系统完整性的长效保护。

关键词: 生态系统完整性, 国家公园, 生物完整性, 管理体制, 理论体系

Abstract: The nature conservation has entered a new stage of integratively managing human-nature harmonized ecosystems. It has become a consensus to break through the elementary thinking and systematically conserve ecosystem integrity from perspectives of ecological characters, ecosystem health and self-organization ability of ecosystems. After experiencing long-term fragmented management across different sectors, China began to emphasize unified management for ecosystem integrity in the process of establishing a national park system. This study argues that the ecosystem integrity of national park does not only mean an intact internal natural space, but also matters to the national ecological security and thus should be strategically viewed from spatial layout of natural protected areas. The vision of sustainably maintaining ecosystem integrity can only be realized by taking each national park as a node of an eco-geographical area. These nodes should be bridged with surrounding protected areas, and effectively balance the relationship both between administrative areas and between people and nature. From this point of view, existing researches are still insufficient in guiding the macro-scale conservation of ecosystem integrity and balancing the relationship between people and nature. Problems also exist in piloting national park systems, such as the lack of managerial technology, the restrictions imposed by administrative boundaries on national park boundaries, the failure to build ecosystem integrity networks with national parks as the core, and the insufficient consideration given to different human-land relations. It is recommended to view the ecosystem at a macro scale and take into account the relations between national parks and surrounding areas, between different administrative regions, and also between human and nature within national parks. This is the best approach for achieving the long-term goal of ecosystem integrity.

Key words: ecosystem integrity, national parks, theoretical system, biological integrity, management system