自然资源学报 ›› 2019, Vol. 34 ›› Issue (8): 1633-1653.doi: 10.31497/zrzyxb.20190806

• 资源生态 • 上一篇    下一篇

气候舒适度的体感分级:季节锚点法与中国案例

蔚丹丹1,2(), 李山1,2,3()   

  1. 1. 华东师范大学地理科学学院,上海 200241
    2. 地理信息科学教育部重点实验室,上海 200241
    3. 崇明生态研究院,上海 200062
  • 收稿日期:2019-01-07 修回日期:2019-06-03 出版日期:2019-08-28 发布日期:2019-08-28
  • 作者简介:

    作者简介:蔚丹丹(1991- ),女,山东济宁人,博士研究生,研究方向为旅游地理学与旅游气候学。E-mail: 52173901011@stu.ecnu.edu.cn

  • 基金资助:
    国家重大科学研究计划课题(2012CB955803)

Scale of human thermal sensation using seasonal anchor method: A Chinese case study

YU Dan-dan1,2(), LI Shan1,2,3()   

  1. 1. School of Geographic Sciences, East China Normal University, Shanghai 200241, China
    2. Key Laboratory of Geographic Information Science, Ministry of Education, Shanghai 200241, China
    3. Institute of Eco-Chongming, Shanghai 200062, China
  • Received:2019-01-07 Revised:2019-06-03 Online:2019-08-28 Published:2019-08-28

摘要:

气候舒适度对人居环境和人类活动具有深远影响,相关的评价模型/指数在建筑设计、城市规划、人体健康和旅游发展等领域有着广泛应用。体感分级标准作为气候舒适度评价模型不可或缺的关键环节,对模型效度有着重要的裁量权,也是实践应用中最终的度量衡工具。目前体感分级标准研究和应用中异地套用和局地实测的传统做法,在制定国家尺度普适性标准时遇到较大瓶颈。本文试图提出包含“定级—定名—定点—定宽”等基本环节的“季节锚点法”这一新的体感分级思路,并基于中国1981-2010年间814个基本(基准)气象站点的日值气象数据,以温湿指数和风效指数为例开展了实证研究。研究给出了“暑—热—暖—温—凉—冷—寒”这一针对中国区域的7级体感划分标准,并具体给出了温湿指数和风效指数在各体感等级上的阈值区间,进而在此基础计算评价了中国气候舒适期和不舒适期的时间长短、空间格局及其历时变化,得到一些有益发现。未来的研究可以进一步就细分人群、测试模型和区域差异等方面的体感分级标准开展更多深入探索。

关键词: 人体热舒适, 热舒适指数, 气候舒适度, 气候舒适期, 温湿指数, 风效指数, 国家标准

Abstract:

Climatic comfort or human thermal comfort has a far-reaching impact on human settlements and human activities. A number of thermal indexes are widely applied in the fields of architectural design, urban planning, human health, and tourism development. As an indispensable and critical part of climatic comfort assessment, scale of thermal sensation not only greatly affects the validity of a thermal index, but also makes the comparison among different thermal indexes possible. At present, a few traditional scales of thermal sensation are generally used for the climatic comfort assessment in different regions without any localized adjustment. Alternatively, experimental investigation and questionnaire survey are adopted to formulate the scale of thermal sensation for a certain area. Therefore, a new approach named "seasonal anchor method" is proposed in this paper, which includes 4 steps --"grading, naming, anchoring, and projecting". Furthermore, based on the long term daily meteorological data (from 1981 to 2010) from 814 national basic meteorological observing stations throughout China, a case study is carried out. In this study, a 7-level scale of thermal sensation, which includes "torrid, hot, warm, neutral, cool, cold, and frozen", is proposed. Meanwhile, the threshold values of each level of thermal sensation for THI (temperature and humidity indexes) and WEI (wind effect index), which can be adopted as a national standard, are generated. Finally, climate-comfortable period and climate-uncomfortable period in China are evaluated, which brings us some meaningful discoveries.

Key words: human thermal comfort, thermal index, climatic comfort, climate-comfortable period, THI, WEI, national standard