自然资源学报 ›› 2019, Vol. 34 ›› Issue (7): 1521-1530.doi: 10.31497/zrzyxb.20190714

• 资源生态 • 上一篇    下一篇

羌塘高原人与野生动物冲突的成因

徐增让1, 靳茗茗1,2, 郑鑫1,3, 魏子谦1,2   

  1. 1. 中国科学院地理科学与资源研究所,北京 100101;
    2. 中国科学院大学,北京 100049;
    3. 中国地质大学(北京)地球科学与资源学院,北京 100083
  • 收稿日期:2019-01-07 出版日期:2019-07-28 发布日期:2019-07-28
  • 作者简介:徐增让(1971- ),男,陕西凤翔人,副研究员,研究方向为资源利用与生态保护。E-mail: xuzr@igsnrr.ac.cn
  • 基金资助:
    第二次青藏高原综合科学考察研究(2019QZKK0600); 国家自然科学基金项目(41571496); 国家重点研发计划项目(2016YFC0503403); 西藏重大科技专项(Z2016C01G01/04)

Causes for human-wildlife conflict on Changtang Plateau in Tibet

XU Zeng-rang1, JIN Ming-ming1,2, ZHENG Xin1,3, WEI Zi-qian1,2   

  1. 1. Institute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resources Research, CAS, Beijing 100101, China;
    2. University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, China;
    3. School of Earth Sciences and Resources, China University of Geosciences (Beijing), Beijing 100083, China
  • Received:2019-01-07 Online:2019-07-28 Published:2019-07-28

摘要: 随着自然保护事业的发展,人与野生动物冲突加剧成为自然保护与地区发展面临的新问题。但人与野生动物冲突研究具有多主体性、复杂性和跨学科性,研究难度大。本文以羌塘高原为例,采用人与野生动物相互作用社会生态系统的概念,梳理了人与野生动物冲突主体的规模、分布,识别了食草野生动物与家畜争食牧草、人类聚落与野生动物竞争生存空间、草场围栏分隔栖息地及阻断迁徙通道等三种主要冲突类型。考虑草畜兽平衡核算了草地承载状况,模拟了家畜与野生动物生存空间重叠,刻画了草场围栏对栖息地及迁徙通道的影响。从重叠空间的资源竞争及人类活动扰动等方面剖析了人与野生动物冲突成因。可为厘清冲突机制,提高干预效果提供新认知。

关键词: 人与野生动物相互作用社会生态系统, 承载力, 放牧, 栖息地, 生态位, 人与野生动物冲突

Abstract: With the great progress of nature conservation in the last decades, human-wildlife conflict (HWC) has emerged as a new issue regarding protected areas. It is important to understand the causes for HWC and take effective measures to reduce HWC. However, research on HWC, characterized by systematicity, complexity, composed by multi-agents, and having feedback mechanism among agents, is difficult for us. Taking the Changtang Plateau in Tibet as an example, with the concept of social-ecological system of human-wildlife interactions, the distribution and quantity of agents of HWC is illustrated by field survey, statistical data and remote sensing data. Three main types of HWC in the study area is identified: (1) Forage competition between domestic livestock (sheep, goats and domestic yak) and herbivore wildlife (Pantholops hodgsonii, Equus kiang, Procapra picticaudata, Gazelle); (2) Living space competition between human settlements and wildlife habitats; (3) Fence separated the pasture and blocked the migratory routes of wildlife like Tibetan antelope. The pasture carrying capacity is examined by integrating wildlife with domestic livestocks. The overlaying of grazing pasture with wildlife habitat was modelled with the Maxent niche model and analyzed with the aid of GIS (geographic information system). Carrying capacity rate including both domestic livestock and herbivore wildlife was 110%, while domestic livestock stock rate was only 98%. Spatial overlapping rate was more than 50% for Tibetan antelope and domestic livestock. The impact of fence on habitat and migratory route of wildlife is also analyzed. Finally, causes for HWC are assembled from the aspects of the resource competition, the overlaying of living space, and the disturbance from human activities such as fence. The study is helpful to clarify the HWC cause and formation mechanism, and to improve the performance of conflict reduction measures.

Key words: human-wildlife conflict, carrying capacity, ecological niche, habitat, social-ecological system of human-wildlife interactions, grazing