自然资源学报 ›› 2019, Vol. 34 ›› Issue (7): 1376-1390.doi: 10.31497/zrzyxb.20190703

• 资源利用与管理 • 上一篇    下一篇

移民搬迁是否加剧了山区耕地撂荒?——基于陕南三市1578户农户面板数据

王倩, 邱俊杰, 余劲   

  1. 西北农林科技大学经济管理学院,杨凌 712100
  • 收稿日期:2018-12-17 出版日期:2019-07-28 发布日期:2019-07-28
  • 通讯作者: 余劲(1969- ),男,湖北英山人,教授,博士生导师,研究方向为不动产经营管理。E-mail: yujin@nwsuaf.edu.cn
  • 作者简介:王倩(1990- ),女,山东菏泽人,博士研究生,研究方向为农业经济理论与政策。E-mail: wgqian@nwafu.edu.cn
  • 基金资助:
    国家自然科学基金项目(71373208,71573208,71874139); 西北农林科技大学西部发展研究院定向委托项目(2015XBYD001)

Does rural resettlement accelerate farmland abandonment in mountainous areas: A case study of 1578 households in Southern Shaanxi

WANG Qian, QIU Jun-jie, YU Jin   

  1. College of Economics and Management, Northwest A&F University, Yangling 712100, Shaanxi, China
  • Received:2018-12-17 Online:2019-07-28 Published:2019-07-28

摘要: 山区移民搬迁是否加剧耕地撂荒关系到移民稳定性及国家粮食安全,具有重要的研究价值。基于陕西省南部地区商洛、安康、汉中3市8县(区)1578户农户调查数据,运用面板Logit和Tobit模型回归得出,移民年数对是否撂荒、撂荒面积及撂荒耕地占比在1%的水平上有正向影响;仅当移民距离超过0.5 km时,农户耕地撂荒面积及撂荒耕地占比显著增加;不同移民类型中,工程移民对耕地撂荒的影响程度最大,避灾移民影响程度最小;另外,户主特征、家庭特征、资源禀赋特征、农地流转特征显著影响了农户的耕地撂荒行为。可以得出,移民搬迁加剧了山区耕地撂荒,城镇生活的转变及务农时间机会成本的增加是耕地撂荒的主要原因。建议政府对工程移民农户进行有土安置,加大生态移民区退耕还林支持力度,扶持扶贫、避灾移民农户发展特色产业,加快农地流转信息平台建设。

关键词: 陕南地区, 加剧, 面板数据, 耕地撂荒, 移民搬迁

Abstract: Rural resettlement, an effective measure to eliminate poverty and improve the ecological environment, develops rapidly in China. Since farmland abandonment closely relates to the stability of migration as well as the national food security, the research regarding whether resettlement accelerates farmland abandonment in mountainous areas is of great importance in China. We used panel Logit and panel Tobit models to analyze the influencing mechanism of resettlement on farmland abandonment with data of 1578 households in 8 counties in prefectures of Shangluo, Ankang, and Hanzhong, the southern part of Shaanxi province. The results show that farmers' resettlement behavior had a significant positive effect on farmland abandonment behavior. The coefficient of migration period was significant at 1% in all regressions, and farmers were more likely to abandon farmland when migration distance was larger than 0.5 kilometer. All types of migration can accelerate farmland abandonment, among which engineering resettlement had the largest effects on farmers' land abandonment behavior, while disaster avoidance resettlement had the least effects. In addition, householder characteristics, household characteristics, resource endowment characteristics, and land rental market are all important influencing factors of farmers' land abandonment behavior. We thus conclude that farmers' enthusiasm of agricultural production decreases after migration, and the phenomenon for land abandonment becomes more obvious with the implementation of resettlement and relocation project in Southern Shaanxi. The transformation to town life and increased time opportunity cost of farming are the main reasons for resettled farmers' land abandonment behavior. The government is suggested to reallocate farmland to engineering resettled farmers, and encourage resettled farmers to participate in the slopping land conversion program with more supporting policies, as well as solve the livelihood problem by developing characteristic industries. In addition, land rental market should be promoted by establishing the information platform of land transfer in all resettlement areas.

Key words: Southern Shaanxi, farmland abandonment, rural resettlement, acceleration, panel data