自然资源学报 ›› 2019, Vol. 34 ›› Issue (6): 1146-1156.doi: 10.31497/zrzyxb.20190602

• “一带一路”专栏 • 上一篇    下一篇

“一带一路”沿线国家水资源禀赋及开发利用分析

杨艳昭1,2,3(), 封志明1,2,3(), 孙通1, 汤峰4   

  1. 1. 中国科学院地理科学与资源研究所,北京 100101
    2. 中国科学院大学资源与环境学院,北京 100049
    3. 国土资源部资源环境承载力重点实验室,北京 101149
    4. 河北农业大学国土资源学院,保定 071001
  • 收稿日期:2018-11-20 修回日期:2019-04-20 出版日期:2019-06-20 发布日期:2019-06-20
  • 作者简介:作者简介:杨艳昭(1977- ),女,辽宁朝阳人,博士,研究员,主要从事资源开发与区域发展研究。E-mail: <email>yangyz@igsnrr.ac.cn</email>
  • 基金资助:
    中国科学院战略性先导科技专项(XDA20010201);国家自然科学基金项目(41430861)

Water resources endowment and exploitation and utilization of countries along the Belt and Road

Yan-zhao YANG1,2,3(), Zhi-ming FENG1,2,3(), Tong SUN1, Feng TANG4   

  1. 1. Institute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resources Research, CAS, Beijing 100101, China
    2. College of Resources and Environment, University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, China
    3. Key Laboratory of Resources and Environment Carrying Capacity of Ministry of Land and Resources, Beijing 101149, China
    4. College of Land and Resources, Hebei Agricultural University, Baoding 071001, Hebei, China
  • Received:2018-11-20 Revised:2019-04-20 Online:2019-06-20 Published:2019-06-20

摘要:

水资源是基础性的战略资源,开展“一带一路”沿线国家水资源研究对于促进“一带一路”的科学建设具有重要意义。基于世界银行与联合国粮农组织水资源数据库,从水资源开发利用角度入手,分析“一带一路”沿线国家水资源自然禀赋、利用状况,在此基础上进一步分析水资源开发潜力。结果表明:(1)从水资源禀赋来看,“一带一路”沿线国家地表水、地下水和水资源总量均以俄罗斯、中国、东南亚和南亚地区相对较高,中亚、西亚等地区相对较低;人均水资源量则以中东欧、俄罗斯和东南亚地区较高,西亚、南亚地区较低;“一带一路”沿线国家外来水依赖率整体表现为跨境河流下游高,上游及海岛国家低。(2)就水资源利用而言,“一带一路”沿线国家用水量整体呈现“东多西少”的格局,人均用水量表现为“中亚最高,周边较低”的特点;用水结构亚洲国家多以农业用水为主,中东欧国家则多以工业用水为主。(3)水资源开发潜力分析发现,阿拉伯半岛地区各国水资源开发潜力很低,中东欧及东南亚地区水资源开发潜力很高。

关键词: “一带一路”沿线国家;, 水资源禀赋, 水资源利用, 水资源开发潜力

Abstract:

Water resources is the basic strategic resource. It is of great significance to conduct research on water resources of countries along the Belt and Road for promoting the scientific construction of the Belt and Road. Based on the World Bank and the FAO Water Resources Databases, we started from the perspective of water exploitation and utilization, analyzed the natural endowment and utilization status of water resources of countries along the Belt and Road, and further explored the water resources exploitation potential status. The results showed that: (1) In terms of water endowment, the surface water, groundwater and total water resources were relatively high in Russia, China, Southeast Asia and South Asia, while they were relatively low in Central Asia and West Asia. The per capita water resource was relatively high in Central and Eastern Europe, Russia and Southeast Asia, while it was relatively low in West Asia and South Asia. The external water dependency rate was high in the downstream of transboundary rivers, while it was low in the upstream of transboundary rivers and island countries. (2) In terms of water utilization, the water consumption was higher in the east than in the west of the Belt and Road region, the per capita water consumption was the highest in Central Asia and it was low in the surrounding areas. In terms of water use structure, agricultural water was dominant in Asian countries, while industrial water was dominant in Central and Eastern Europe countries. (3) In terms of water resources exploitation potential, the exploitation potential of countries in the Arabian Peninsula was extremely low, and it was extremely high in Central and Eastern Europe and Southeast Asia.

Key words: countries along the Belt and Road, water endowment, water utilization, water exploitation potential