自然资源学报 ›› 2019, Vol. 34 ›› Issue (4): 867-880.doi: 10.31497/zrzyxb.20190415

• 资源评价 • 上一篇    下一篇

中国采煤沉陷区空间格局与治理模式

李佳洺1(), 余建辉1, 张文忠1,2()   

  1. 1. 中国科学院地理科学与资源研究所,区域可持续发展与模拟重点实验室,北京 100101
    2. 中国科学院大学,北京 100049
  • 收稿日期:2018-04-25 修回日期:2018-08-11 出版日期:2019-04-20 发布日期:2019-04-20
  • 作者简介:

    作者简介:李佳洺(1984- ),男,山西晋城人,博士,助理研究员,研究方向为经济地理与区域发展。E-mail: lijm@igsnrr.ac.cn

  • 基金资助:
    国家自然科学基金项目(41701128,41671166);中国科学院重点部署项目(KFZD-SW-314)

Spatial distribution and governance of coal-mine subsidence in China

LI Jia-ming1(), YU Jian-hui1, ZHANG Wen-zhong1,2()   

  1. 1. Key Laboratory of Regional Sustainable Development Modeling, Institute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resources Research, CAS, Beijing 100101, China
    2. College of Resources and Environment, University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, China
  • Received:2018-04-25 Revised:2018-08-11 Online:2019-04-20 Published:2019-04-20

摘要:

大面积的采煤沉陷区引发严重的社会和环境问题,得到政府和学术界的广泛关注。与传统以自然条件为基础的沉陷区复垦研究不同,考虑采煤沉陷区自然生态因素和区域经济发展条件,从综合治理的角度出发,分析中国采煤沉陷区整体格局和面临的社会经济风险,深入研究各地采煤沉陷区综合治理路径。结果表明:中国采煤沉陷区面积预计超过60000 km2,其中与城乡建设用地和耕地叠压的面积分别达到4500 km2和26000 km2,涉及人口达2000万左右,其中山西和山东两省采煤沉陷区的影响最为严重;从区域特征来看,中国采煤沉陷区有开发利用、环境修复、民生保障、异地搬迁四大主要治理导向,进一步结合社会经济和空间特征,可以将沉陷区分为环境适应发展型、基础设施完善型、特色产业带动型、环境修复型、民生保障型、异地搬迁型六个治理类型。

关键词: 采煤沉陷区, 空间格局, 综合治理, 中国

Abstract:

Coal has been China's dominant indigenous source of energy. Although the proportion of coal consumption in total (primary) energy consumption decreased steadily in recent years, China is still the world's largest coal producer and has been exporting substantial amounts of the energy. Due to a long history of underground coal mining, many more undermined areas have subsided than most people can imagine. Large coal-mine subsidence has resulted in serious structural damage to buildings, roads, irrigation ditches, underground utilities and pipelines. Besides, the consequences of ground subsidence generally consist of serious environment impact and livelihoods issues of residents. All these has drawn a lot of attention from scholars and government leaders. However, it still fails to figure out the whole picture of coal-mine subsidence and its consequences in China. The research has employed a unique dataset of mineral rights for coal in China to investigate spatial distribution of subsidence at present and foreseeable future. The damage to cities and farmland and the size of population involved in the subsidence areas has also been estimated through the comprehensive analysis of land use map and population and subsidence distribution. The results highlight the difference of potential losses of coal-mine subsidence between areas in China. For example, subsidence has significant influence on urban development in eastern China; while farmland in rural areas suffers relatively great loss in the western mountainous areas. Even so, it is not enough to answer how to govern and mitigate subsidence of those large coal-mines in China. Because governance modes and methods depend on not only characteristics of spatial distribution and potential losses but also natural conditions and the level of economic development. According to characteristics of potential losses, natural conditions and economic development, we further define six kinds of subsidence and figure out their governance directions and major works in China. The results are shown in the following: (1) The area of potential coal-mine subsidence is more than 60000 km2 in China. There are 4500 km2 of the urban-rural construction land and 26000 km2 of farmland in these subsiding areas. There are around 20 million residents involved in the subsidence. (2) According to climatic conditions and social and economic development levels, coal-mine subsidences fall into four types of areas with different governance directions in China: Focusing on eco-environmental modification; household livelihood security; exploitation and utilization; migration and relocation. (3) According to population and construction lands impacted and hydrogeological environment, exploitation-oriented areas are further divided into three types: Some should adapt to the changing environment; some should repair the infrastructures destroyed; some should develop characteristic industries such as tourism to increase residents' income.

Key words: coal-mine subsidence areas, spatial characteristics, governance, China