自然资源学报 ›› 2019, Vol. 34 ›› Issue (4): 829-838.doi: 10.31497/zrzyxb.20190412

• 资源评价 • 上一篇    下一篇

华北引黄灌区粮食产量与农业土壤资源质量时空分布特征

陶雯1(), 张旭博2,3(), 孙志刚2,3,4, 李仕冀2,3, 刘晓洁2, 张崇玉1, 欧阳竹2,3, 成升魁2,3   

  1. 1. 贵州大学农学院,贵阳 550025
    2. 中国科学院地理科学与资源研究所/生态系统网络观测与模拟重点研究实验室,北京 100101
    3. 中国科学院大学资源与环境学院,北京 100049
    4. 中国科学院山东东营地理研究院,东营 257509
  • 收稿日期:2018-07-30 修回日期:2019-01-31 出版日期:2019-04-20 发布日期:2019-04-20
  • 作者简介:

    作者简介:陶雯(1991- ),女,广西贺州人,硕士,研究方向为植物营养。E-mail: twen005@163.com

  • 基金资助:
    国家重点研发计划(2017YFC0503805);中国科学院战略性先导科技专项(XDA19040303);中国科学院重点部署项目(ZDBS-SSW-DQC)

Spatio-temporal patterns of the grain yield and quality of agricultual soil resources in the irrigated area of the Yellow River in the North China Plain

TAO Wen1(), ZHANG Xu-bo2,3(), SUN Zhi-gang2,3,4, LI Shi-ji2,3, LIU Xiao-jie2, ZHANG Chong-yu1, OUYANG Zhu2,3, CHENG Sheng-kui2,3   

  1. 1. Agricultural College of Guizhou University, Guiyang 550025, China
    2. Key Laboratory of Ecosystem Network Observation and Modeling, Institute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resources Research, CAS, Beijing 100101, China
    3. College of Resources and Environment, University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, China
    4. Zhongke Shandong Dongying Institute of Geography, Dongying 257509, Shandong, China
  • Received:2018-07-30 Revised:2019-01-31 Online:2019-04-20 Published:2019-04-20

摘要:

明确作物产量和土壤养分时空变异可以更好地掌握农田生产力和土壤质量情况,对农业资源合理配置以及提高生产力可持续性有着非常重要的意义。利用华北平原引黄灌区下游农田作物产量数据和耕地质量监测数据,对华北平原引黄灌区下游作物产量的演变以及有机质和养分的空间分布进行分析,阐明该地区作物产量、土壤养分的空间分布特征。结果表明:灌区的农田生产力水平存在显著的空间和时空差异。20世纪80年代末以来,农田生产力水平整体呈上升趋势,冬小麦高产田分布在黄河下游北岸中部地区的齐河县和下游南岸三个县,范围是6084.0~6861.0 kg/hm2,夏玉米产量空间分布整体上呈现出中间高两端低的特征,其中齐河县的产量最高,为7524.0 kg/hm2。灌区农田土壤有机质、氮、磷、钾养分具有明显的时空分布差异,有机质和速效钾含量最高的德州市分别为16.30 g/kg和202.40 mg/kg,全氮含量最高的淄博市为1.17 g/kg,有效磷含量最高的泰安市为34.56 mg/kg。研究表明,灌区的生产力水平一直不断在提升,仍有很大的增长空间。掌握养分分布特征和土壤肥力的空间差异来制定合理的施肥措施,可为今后该地区实现精准农业和高产稳产提供科学依据。

关键词: 引黄灌区, 粮食产量, 土壤质量, 有机质, 土壤养分

Abstract:

Understanding the spatial and temporal variations of crop yield and soil nutrient can optimize the agricultural resources utilization and sustain the agro-productivity, which is of great significance for agricultural production activities. In this study, the quality monitoring data of crop yield and soil nutrients were used to analyse the evolution of crop yield and the spatial distribution of soil organic matter and other nutrients in the irrigated area at the lower reaches of the Yellow River in the North China Plain. The results showed that there were significant spatial and temporal differences in the level of agricultural productivity within the irrigated area. Since the late 1980s, the overall level of farmland productivity had been on the rise. The high yield field of winter wheat was distributed in Qihe county in the north part and the three counties in the south part of the lower reaches of the Yellow River with a range of 6084.0-6861.0 kg/hm2. The spatial distribution of summer maize yield showed that the intermediate area was higher than the two sides, and the yield of Qihe county was the highest with the yield of 7524.0 kg/hm2. The lowest yields of winter wheat and summer maize were found in Dongying county, which were 4705.5 and 5092.5 kg/hm2 respectively. The distribution of organic matter and nutrient of farmland in the irrigated area had obvious spatial and temporal differences. The highest organic matter content and available potassium were observed in Dezhou, being 16.30 g/kg and 202.40 mg/kg, respectively. The highest total nitrogen content was in Zibo, being 1.17 g/kg. The highest phosphorus content was in Tai'an, being 34.56 mg/kg. However, the lowest contents of organic matter, total nitrogen and available phosphorus were observed in Dongying, being 9.90 g/kg, 0.60 g/kg and 19.10 mg/kg, respectively. The results suggested that the level of agricultural productivity in the irrigated area had been continuously improving, which indicated that a great potential of agricultural productivity still exists. In addition, identifying the spatial difference of nutrient distribution can give the guidance to design the reasonable fertilization strategies for precision agriculture, and higher and more stable productivity.

Key words: irrigated area of the Yellow River, crop yield, soil quality, organic matter, soil nutrient