自然资源学报 ›› 2019, Vol. 34 ›› Issue (4): 745-758.doi: 10.31497/zrzyxb.20190406

• 资源生态 • 上一篇    下一篇

基于恢复能力与影响周期的围海养殖工程生态损害特征及补偿标准——以象山县水湖涂名优水产养殖区为例

冯佰香1(), 李加林1,2, 龚虹波3(), 何改丽1, 黄日鹏1, 李昌达4   

  1. 1. 宁波大学地理与空间信息技术系,宁波 315211
    2. 宁波大学东海研究院,宁波 315211
    3. 宁波大学法学院,宁波 315211
    4. 温州市洞头区海洋生态与藻类研究院,温州 325000
  • 收稿日期:2018-10-28 修回日期:2019-01-30 出版日期:2019-04-20 发布日期:2019-04-20
  • 作者简介:

    作者简介:冯佰香(1993- ),女,甘肃武威人,硕士,主要从事海岸带环境与生态研究。E-mail: 1821453200@qq.com

  • 基金资助:
    国家社会科学基金重大项目(16ZDA050)

Study on ecological damage characteristics and compensation standard of aquaculture project based on recovery capacity and impact cycle: A case study of the famous aquaculture area of Shuihutu in Xiangshan county

FENG Bai-xiang1(), LI Jia-lin1,2, GONG Hong-bo3(), HE Gai-li1, HUANG Ri-peng1, LI Chang-da4   

  1. 1. Department of Geography & Spatial Information Techniques, Ningbo University, Ningbo 315211, Zhejiang, China;
    2. East China Sea Institute, Ningbo University, Ningbo 315211, Zhejiang, China
    3. Law School, Ningbo University, Ningbo 315211, Zhejiang, China
    4. Research Institute of Marine Ecology and Algae, Dongtou District, Wenzhou City, Wenzhou 325000, Zhejiang, China
  • Received:2018-10-28 Revised:2019-01-30 Online:2019-04-20 Published:2019-04-20

摘要:

以宁波市象山县水湖涂名优水产围海养殖工程为研究对象,通过构建生态服务价值损害评估指标体系,分析了围海养殖区的生态损害特征,并基于海域自我恢复能力,研究了围海养殖工程的生态补偿标准和资源恢复周期。结果显示:(1)名优水产围海养殖工程造成的生态损害总价值为318.90万元/a,单位面积损害价值为3.20万元/hm2·a。生态损害主要以生态服务型为主,占总量比例为53.54%。(2)生物资源型损害类别中,潮间带生物损害价值最大,为59.71万元,其次为紫菜养殖和鱼卵、仔鱼,二者损害价值量相当,占总量比例均为13.55%,底栖生物和游泳生物价值损失则均较小。(3)生态服务型损害类别中,一级类别主要以调节服务价值为主,占总量比例为32.56%。二级损害类别中,废弃物处理损害价值最大,为71.77万元,休闲娱乐损害价值也较大,占总量比例为12.80%,其他类型则价值损失较小。(4)名优水产围海养殖工程基于海域自我恢复能力的生态补偿标准为280.90万元/a,单位面积补偿价值为2.82万元/hm2·a,对比生态损害价值确定的补偿标准,总量减少11.92%。项目施工结束后,近岸滩涂恢复速度为4.6320 hm2/a,约13年后新围大堤附近滩涂将恢复到围海前的基线水平。

关键词: 围海养殖, 生态补偿, 恢复能力, 影响周期

Abstract:

Scientific and reasonable marine eco-compensation standard has great significance in optimizing the allocation of marine resources and maintaining the sustainable development of the marine economy. Taking the famous aquaculture reclamation project of Shuhutu in Xiangshan county of Ningbo city as the research object, the paper constructed an index system of ecological services value damage assessment, and methods for assessing the recovery capacity of sea areas and the impact cycle of resources. The damage value and characteristics of various ecological services caused by the aquaculture project were calculated and analyzed. The eco-compensation standard and the recovery cycle of the aquaculture project based on the marine self recovery capability were determined, and the differences in the compensation standards determined directly from the ecological damage value and based on the recovery capacity were compared and analyzed. The results showed that: (1) The total value of the ecological damage caused by the famous aquaculture reclamation project is 3.189 million yuan/a, and the damage value per unit area is 32000 yuan/hm2·a. Ecological damage is mainly based on ecological services, accounting for 53.54% of the total. (2) In the category of biological resource damage, the primary category is dominated by the value of resource damage, which accounts for 32.92% of the total. In the second category, the biological damage value of intertidal biological is the highest, at 597100 yuan, followed by the damage value of seaweed farming, fish eggs and larvae, both of which have the same damage value accounting for 13.55% of the total. The value loss of benthos and swimming organisms is smaller. (3) In the category of ecological service damage, the primary category is mainly adjustment service value, accounting for 32.56% of the total. In the secondary damage category, the damage value of waste disposal is the highest, reaching 717700 yuan, while the value of recreation and entertainment is also large, accounting for 12.80% of the total damage. The other types have less value loss. (4) The eco-compensation standard of the famous aquaculture reclamation project based on the sea self-reclamation capacity is 2.809 million yuan/a, and the compensation value per unit area is 28200 yuan/hm2·a. The average compensation value to be paid in installments is 1.8068 million yuan/a and the compensation amount per unit area is 18100 yuan/hm2·a. (5) Compared with the compensation standard determined by the value of ecological damage, the total amount of eco-compensation standard based on the recovery capacity of sea areas is reduced by 11.92%, and the unit area is reduced by 11.88%. After the completion of the project, the recovery speed of nearshore intertidal zone will be 4.632 hm2/a. After a total of 12.97 years, the tidal flat near the new embankment will be restored to the baseline level which existenced before the reclamation starting.

Key words: coastal reclamation, ecological compensation, recovery capability, influence cycle