自然资源学报 ›› 2019, Vol. 34 ›› Issue (1): 54-65.doi: 10.31497/zrzyxb.20190105

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湄公河干流水电开发事前磋商机制

匡洋1(), 李浩1, 杨泽川2   

  1. 1. 长江水利委员会长江科学院国际河流研究所,武汉 430010
    2. 水利部国际经济技术合作交流中心,北京 100053
  • 收稿日期:2018-06-20 修回日期:2018-09-17 出版日期:2019-01-20 发布日期:2019-01-20
  • 作者简介:

    作者简介:匡洋(1989- ),女,湖北黄冈人,工程师,硕士,研究方向为国际河流水资源管理。E-mail: y_kuangkuang@163.com

  • 基金资助:
    国家自然科学基金项目(91647114);中央级公益性科研院所基本科研业务费资助项目(CKSF2017033/GJ)

Research on prior consultation mechanism for mainstream hydropower development in the Lower Mekong

Yang KUANG1(), Hao LI1, Ze-chuan YANG2   

  1. 1. Changjiang River Scientific Research Institute of Changjiang Water Resources Commission, Wuhan 430010, China
    2. The International Economic & Technical Cooperation and Exchange Center, Ministry of Water Resources, Beijing 100053, China;
  • Received:2018-06-20 Revised:2018-09-17 Online:2019-01-20 Published:2019-01-20

摘要:

湄公河委员会是湄公河流域唯一的从事水资源开发管理的政府间国际组织,但其机构的制度有效性一直备受质疑。尤其是2003年订立的《通知、事前磋商和达成协定规程》在老挝沙耶武里水电站、栋沙宏水电站和北本水电站上相继应用后,不仅未能调和成员国在水资源开发问题上的利益分歧与矛盾,且规程本身也引起较大争议。随着湄公河干流水电开发的加速推进,中国参与次区域水资源开发治理的客观环境发生变化,迫切需要加强相关理论基础与实践研究,促进流域开发合作和可持续发展。为此,论文主要梳理了湄委会事前磋商机制的制度框架、管理机构及操作流程,在总结三次实践进展基础上,客观分析了该机制取得的成效和存在的问题,并提出补充注释说明文件、制定受益补偿条款、建立公众参与制度、完善事前磋商流程等四个方面改进建议。同时探讨了事前磋商机制对中国参与全流域合作的影响及有效应对策略,可为澜湄合作新机制下中国水资源开发合作政策的制定提供借鉴与启示。

关键词: 湄公河流域, 水电开发, 事前磋商机制, 澜湄合作

Abstract:

The Mekong River Commission is the only international intergovernmental organization in the Mekong River basin engaged in water resources development and management, but its institutional system effectiveness has been questioned. Especially the "Procedures for Notification, Prior Consultation and Agreement" concluded in 2003, which was successively applied to the Xayabury, Don Sahong and Pak Beng hydropower stations in Laos, not only failed to reconcile the differences of interest and contradictions of member countries, but also caused great controversy. As the mainstream hydropower development accelerates, the objective environment for China to participate in the development and management of water resources in the sub-regions is also changed. There is an urgent need to strengthen relevant theoretical foundation and practical research to promote basin development cooperation and sustainable development. Therefore, this paper mainly introduces the institutional framework, management mechanism and operating process of the MRC prior consultation mechanism, while objectively analyzes its achievements and problems based on the three practices, and then puts forward suggestions for improvement in four aspects, such as supplementing an explanatory document, making provisions for benefit compensation and public participation, as well as perfecting the process of prior consultation. Finally, we discuss the impact of the MRC prior consultation mechanism on China's participation in the whole basin management and effective countermeasures, which will provide reference and enlightenment for China's water resources development and cooperation policy under the Lancang-Mekong cooperation framework.

Key words: Mekong River Basin, hydropower development, prior consultation mechanism, Lancang-Mekong cooperation