自然资源学报 ›› 2018, Vol. 33 ›› Issue (7): 1139-1151.doi: 10.31497/zrzyxb.20180092

• 资源生态 • 上一篇    下一篇

重大生态工程规划设计的理论探讨

徐国劲1, 谢永生1,2,*, 骆汉1,2,*, 孟敏1   

  1. 1. 西北农林科技大学水土保持研究所,陕西 杨凌 712100;
    2. 中国科学院水利部水土保持研究所,陕西 杨凌 712100
  • 收稿日期:2018-01-24 修回日期:2018-05-10 出版日期:2018-07-20 发布日期:2018-07-20
  • 通讯作者: 谢永生(1960- ),男,河南开封人,研究员,博士生导师,研究方向为水土保持与生态技术。E-mail: ysxie@ms.iswc.ac.cn;骆汉(1985- ),男,山东淄博人,助理研究员,博士,研究方向为水土保持与生态技术。E-mail: hanl@ms.iswc.ac.cn
  • 作者简介:徐国劲(1992- ),男,河南固始人,硕士研究生,研究方向为生态技术理论。E-mail: xuguojinhn@163.com
  • 基金资助:
    国家重点研发计划课题(2016YFC0503702)

Theoretical Discussion on Planning and Design of Major Ecological Engineering

XU Guo-jin1, XIE Yong-sheng1,2, LUO Han1,2, MENG Min1   

  1. 1. Institute of Soil and Water Conservation, Northwest A&F University, Yangling 712100, China;
    2. Institute of Soil and Water Conservation, CAS and Ministry of Water Resources, Yangling 712100, China
  • Received:2018-01-24 Revised:2018-05-10 Online:2018-07-20 Published:2018-07-20
  • Supported by:
    National Key R&D Program of China, No. 2016YFC0503702

摘要: 生态问题已成为阻碍我国经济社会可持续发展的主要屏障,解决生态问题的主要途径是实施生态治理工程。我国开展的诸多生态治理工程以退耕还林还草工程最为典型,由于相关理论研究长期滞后于生产实践需求导致该工程在推进过程中“边实施、边调整、边总结”。论文剖析了退耕还林还草工程不同阶段出现的问题以及国家采取的相应对策。通过理论分析指出生态问题是经济社会系统内部矛盾的外在表现,生态治理工程既要解决生态退化及危害,又要解决诱发生态问题的经济社会内部矛盾;生态工程设计需要生态学、经济学、社会学等相关学科的理论支撑。重大生态工程设计之初需要考虑技术储备、工程成本、成果稳定性(经济社会系统内部矛盾解决程度)、推广性、综合效益、政策及法律法规搭配等问题以达到“内外兼治”的效果,避免因“边实施、边调整、边总结”带来的工程风险和浪费,最终保障工程目标的实现。

关键词: 规划设计, 生态工程, 退耕还林还草

Abstract: Ecological problems have become a major barrier to the sustainable economic and social development in China. The main way to solve the ecological problems is to carry out ecological governing projects. Reverting Cropland to Forest and Grassland Project is the most typical case among the many major ecological projects implemented in China. However, because the theoretical research chronically lags behind the demands of production practices, the project has to be implemented, adjusted and improved simultaneously. The paper analyzed the main problems and the corresponding countermeasures taken by government at different stages of Reverting Cropland to Forest and Grassland Project and indicated that the ecological problems are the external manifestations of internal conflicts of economic and social systems. The ecological governance projects should not only solve the problems of ecological degradation and damages, but also solve internal economic and social conflicts which might induce ecological problems. Eco-engineering planning and design requires the theoretical support from related disciplines such as ecology, economics, and sociology. At the beginning of major eco-engineering planning and design, it is necessary to take into account the technical reserves, project costs, project achievement stability (the degree that the internal conflicts of economic and social system are solved), promotion, comprehensive benefits, collocation of policies, laws and regulations and other issues. The objectives of considering these factors are to achieve the ideal effect of “both internal and external governance”. All above theoretical methods may avoid the risks and wastes brought by simultaneous government, correction and summary and ensure the realization of the aims of the project.

Key words: ecological engineering, planning and design, reverting farmland to forests and grassland

中图分类号: 

  • X171.4