自然资源学报 ›› 2018, Vol. 33 ›› Issue (9): 1642-1656.doi: 10.31497/zrzyxb.20170788

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旅游体验对旅游者环境态度和环境行为影响的纵向追踪研究

洪学婷1, 张宏梅2,*, 张业臣1   

  1. 1. 安徽师范大学,安徽 芜湖 241003;
    2. 上海师范大学,上海 200234
  • 收稿日期:2017-08-14 修回日期:2018-01-18 出版日期:2018-09-20 发布日期:2018-09-20
  • 通讯作者: 张宏梅(1969- ),女,教授,博士生导师,研究方向为旅游者行为、旅游目的地管理、旅游生态环境管理。E-mail: hongmei_221@qq.com

  • 作者简介:洪学婷(1992- ),女,安徽芜湖人,硕士研究生,研究方向为旅游者行为。E-mail: 1521011015@ahnu.edu.cn
  • 基金资助:
    国家自然科学基金面上项目(41371161)

Influence of Tourism Experience on Environmental Attitude and Behavior: A Longitudinal Tracking Study

HONG Xue-ting1, ZHANG Hong-mei2, ZHANG Ye-chen1   

  1. 1. Anhui Normal University, Wuhu 241003, China;
    2. Shanghai Normal University, Shanghai 200234, China
  • Received:2017-08-14 Revised:2018-01-18 Online:2018-09-20 Published:2018-09-20
  • Supported by:
    ; National Natural Science Foundation of China, No. 41371161.

摘要: 目前国内关于旅游体验对环境态度和行为影响的纵向追踪研究较为缺乏。论文以自然旅游地黄山为案例地,通过纵向调查,采用配对样本t检验比较同一批次旅游者游前、游后以及3个月后的环境态度和环境行为。研究发现:1)旅游体验对旅游者环境态度基本没有影响。2)旅游体验对旅游者环境行为存在显著影响。短期影响表现为:特定地点环境责任行为中的教育、身体和法律行动显著改善,一般环境责任行为中教育、消费、说服、身体和法律行动显著改善;长期影响表现为:特定地点环境责任行为中的教育、消费、身体行动和一般环境责任行为中的消费、身体、法律行动显著改善。环境行为的改变主要是通过旅游体验中的认知和情感刺激引起的,包括预期愧疚、集体自豪感、环境知识、负面后果认知、自我效能、环境解说等因素。文章最后讨论了管理意义和研究不足。

关键词: 环境态度, 环境责任行为, 黄山, 旅游体验, 自然旅游地

Abstract: Longitudinal research on the influence of tourism experience on environmental attitude and behavior is sparse in China. This study fills this gap by comparing the environmental attitude and environmentally responsible behavior of the same sample at three different time points, namely pre-visit, post-visit and three months after visit. The primary aim of this study was to investigate the effects of natural-based tourism experience on visitors’ environmental attitudes and behaviors. Huangshan Scenic Area, which provided a typical natural based tourism, was chosen as a case destination. Paired-sample t test was used to analyze the change of attitude and behavior. The results indicate that there is little change in environmental attitudes. Scores on the environmental attitudes of post-visit and follow-up-visit samples increaesed with no significance, but the general and site-specific environmentally responsible behaviors change positively and significantly. For the short-term impact, the paired-sample t test of pre-visit and post-visit of site-specific environmentally responsible behaviors indicated that these increase were significant, education (P<0.001), physical (P<0.001) and legal action (P=0.012) in site-specific environmentally responsible behaviors were significantly improved; the paired-sample t test of pre-visit and post-visit of general environmentally responsible behaviors indicated that these increase were significant, education (P=0.001), consumption (P<0.001), persuasion (P=0.018), physical (P=0.003) and legal action (P=0.010) in general environmentally responsible behaviors were significantly improved. For the long-term impact, the paired-sample t test of pre-visit and follow-up-visit of general environmentally responsible behaviors indicated that some of these increase were significant, consumption (P=0.020), physical (P=0.004) and legal action (P=0.022) in general environmentally responsible behaviors were significantly improved; the paired-sample t test of pre-visit and follow-up-visit survey of site-specific environmentally responsible behaviors indicated that these increase were significant, education (P<0.001), consumption (P=0.002), physical action (P<0.001) in site-specific environmentally responsible behaviors were significantly improved. We conclude that short-term effects of tourism experience were greater than the long-term effects. Change of environmentally responsible behaviors is mainly caused by the cognitive and emotional stimulations at the destination, including anticipated guilt, collective pride, environmental interpretation, environmental knowledge, self-efficacy, ecological responsibility, and adverse consequence, etc. The emotions aroused by the natural experience can promote the environmentally responsible behavior. Some visitors conveyed a sense of anticipated guilt when they saw the hard work of cleaners way up the mountain, which led them to feel anticipated guilt when they dropped litter carelessly. Some visitors indicated that enjoy the beautiful natural sceneries had caused them to feel pride and take more environmentally responsible behaviors. Recommendations are given to improve the environmental attitudes and behaviors of visitors, such as providing high-level environmental related interpretation services, cultivating the emotional factors that promote the environmentally responsible behaviors, strengthening the management of environmental protection, enhancing environmental education and encouraging public supervision and participation. Finally, this study discussed the limitation of this study.

Key words: environmental attitude, environmentally responsible behavior, Huangshan Scenic Area, natural-based tourism, tourism experience

中图分类号: 

  • F590