自然资源学报 ›› 2018, Vol. 33 ›› Issue (8): 1463-1474.doi: 10.31497/zrzyxb.20170671

• 资源研究方法 • 上一篇    

考虑空气阻力影响的流域水文过程模拟研究

刘欢, 甘永德*, 贾仰文, 徐飞, 牛存稳   

  1. 中国水利水电科学研究院流域水循环模拟与调控国家重点实验室,北京 100038
  • 收稿日期:2017-07-03 修回日期:2018-01-18 出版日期:2018-08-20 发布日期:2018-08-20
  • 通讯作者: 甘永德(1985- ),男,青海民和人,博士,研究方向为流域水循环模拟和水资源规划管理。E-mail: bjganyd@163.com
  • 作者简介:刘欢(1992- ),男,河南开封人,博士研究生,研究方向为流域水循环模拟和水资源规划管理。E-mail: zdliuhuan@163.com
  • 基金资助:
    国家重点基础研究发展计划(973计划)(2015CB452701);国家重点研发计划课题(2016YFC0401301);中国工程院咨询研究项目(2016-ZD-08)

Simulation of Basin Hydrological Processes Considering Air Resistance Effect

LIU Huan, GAN Yong-de, JIA Yang-wen, XU Fei, NIU Cun-wen   

  1. State Key Lab. of Simulation and Regulation of Water Cycle in River Basin, China Institute of Water Resources and Hydropower Research, Beijing 100038, China
  • Received:2017-07-03 Revised:2018-01-18 Online:2018-08-20 Published:2018-08-20
  • Supported by:
    National Key Basic Research Program of China, No. 2015CB452701;National Key Research and Development Programs, No. 2016YFC0401301;Major Consulting Project of Chinese Academy of Engineering, No. 2016-ZD-08

摘要: 降雨入渗时,部分空气会被禁锢在土壤中,影响水分下渗。目前分布式水文模型构建过程中,尚未考虑空气阻力对降雨入渗的影响,这制约着模型的适用性。论文基于Green-Ampt模型,引入土壤含水量饱和度系数、土壤导水系数饱和度系数、土壤进气值和土壤进水值4个参数量化空气阻力影响,改进分布式水文模型WEP-L模型。最后,选择清水河流域和柳江流域进行实例研究,检验WEP-L模型的改进效果。结果表明:与传统WEP-L模型相比,改进的WEP-L模型在清水河流域(面积较小)应用时可显著提高流域水文过程模拟精度,尤其是在暴雨洪水期,日径流模拟相对误差由40.57%降低到9.43%,Nash效率系数由-0.24提高到0.57。而在柳江流域(面积较大)应用时,模型改进后模拟效果虽有所改善,但不够显著。

关键词: Green-Ampt模型, WEP-L模型, 空气阻力, 入渗产流, 水文模拟

Abstract: In the process of rainfall infiltration, part of the air will be trapped in the soil, which affects soil moisture infiltration. However, when simulating the basin hydrological processes, the current distributed hydrological models fail to consider the effect of air resistance on rainfall infiltration. This effect is mainly reflected in two aspects: 1) The air trapped in the soil results in that the actual moisture content and hydraulic conductivity of the soil profile are less than the saturated water content and saturated hydraulic conductivity, respectively. 2) Air trapped in the soil creates air pressure, which reduces soil infiltration rate. Consequently, the applicability and simulation accuracy of existing models are hindered. Based on the Green-Ampt model, the saturation coefficient related to soil moisture content and saturation coefficient related to soil water conductivity were introduced in this paper to correct the saturated water content and saturated hydraulic conductivity of the distributed hydrological model. Simultaneously, this paper introduced the air bubbling pressure and water bubbling pressure to quantify the effect of air pressure on soil water suction at wetting front. Using these four parameters, the rainfall infiltration module in the distributed hydrological model (WEP-L model) was modified. Finally, the traditional WEP-L model and the modified model were used to simulate the rainfall-runoff process in the Qingshui River Basin and the Liujiang River Basin, and the simulation results were compared and analyzed using the rainfall runoff data at Qingbaikou Station and Liuzhou Station, respectively. The results show that when using the modified WEP-L model in the Qingshui River Basin, a small watershed, the simulation accuracy was significantly improved, especially in rainstorm periods. For the simulation of monthly runoff in Qingbaikou Station, when using the modified WEP-L model the relative error between simulated and measured values decreased from 53.71% to 23.50% compared when using the traditional model, and Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency coefficient increased from 0.63 to 0.90 during the calibration period. Moreover, during the validation period, the relative error decreased from 50.39% to 20.87%, and Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency coefficient increased from 0.78 to 0.84. For the simulation of daily runoff in rainstorm periods, the absolute relative error of flood peaks decreased from 23.64% to 14.63%. While using the modified model in the Liujiang River Basin, a large watershed, the improvement of simulation accuracy was not obvious. The reason may be that: 1) Compared with the small watershed, the impact factors of rainfall-runoff in the large watershed are more complicated and diverse, and the adaptability of the catchment to the changes in rainfall intensity and underlying surface conditions is stronger, which make the effect of air resistance more difficult to be significantly reflected. 2) The climatic zones and runoff mechanisms of the two basins are different. Qingshui River Basin is located in the semi-humid and semi-humid area where the runoff yield is dominated by excessive infiltration, so the effect of air resistance is relatively greater.

Key words: air resistance, Green-Ampt model, hydrological simulation, infiltration runoff, WEP-L model

中图分类号: 

  • P334