自然资源学报 ›› 2018, Vol. 33 ›› Issue (7): 1270-1282.doi: 10.31497/zrzyxb.20170669

所属专题: 气候变化与地表过程

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青藏高原西北部近地表气温直减率时空分布特征

孙从建1,2, 李伟1, 李新功1,2, 张子宇1, 陈若霞1, 陈伟1   

  1. 1. 山西师范大学地理科学学院,山西 临汾 041000;
    2. 中国科学院新疆生态与地理研究所 荒漠与绿洲生态国家重点实验室,乌鲁木齐 830011
  • 收稿日期:2017-06-29 修回日期:2017-10-31 出版日期:2018-07-20 发布日期:2018-07-20
  • 作者简介:孙从建(1986- ),男,河北沧州人,副教授,博士(后),主要从事气候变化与水循环研究。E-mail: suncongjian@sina.com
  • 基金资助:
    新疆维吾尔自治区自然科学基金面上项目(2016D01A075)

Spatio-temporal Variation of Near-surface Temperature Lapse Rates over the Northwestern Tibetan Plateau

SUN Cong-jian1,2, LI Wei1, LI Xin-gong1,2, ZHANG Zi-yu1, CHEN Ruo-xia1, CHEN Wei1   

  1. 1. School of Geographical Sciences, Shanxi Normal University, Linfen 041000, China;
    2. State Key Laboratory of Desert and Oasis Ecology, Xinjiang Institute of Ecology and Geography, CAS, Urumqi 830011, China
  • Received:2017-06-29 Revised:2017-10-31 Online:2018-07-20 Published:2018-07-20
  • Supported by:
    The General Program of the Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region Natural Science Foundation of China, No. 2016D01A075

摘要: 近地表气温直减率是研究山地生态系统对气候变化响应过程中的重要参数,论文基于青藏高原西北部1951—2013年的9个标准气象站以及2012—2016年的高山自设观测站的日平均气温、最低气温、最高气温(TaveTminTmax)数据,分析了青藏高原西北部近地表气温直减率(LRTaveLRTminLRTmax)的时空分布特征。结果表明:1)青藏高原西北部近地表气温随高程增大有显著下降趋势。研究区两个区域的LRTaveLRTminLRTmax均呈现出显著的空间差异性,而基于气象站的LRTaveLRTmin高于高山观测站的LRTaveLRTminLRTmax,其中LRTmin差异最为显著,而LRTmax空间差异较小。2)青藏高原西北部近地表气温直减率具有明显的季节差异,气象站的LRTaveLRTminLRTmax季节变化趋势为春季高、夏季较高、冬季低,而高山观测站的LRTaveLRTminLRTmax季节变化趋势为夏季高、冬季低。其中气象站LRTmax在四季中的差异最显著,而高山观测站的LRTmin的季节差异最大。高山观测站的气温直减率在4—9月间具有较为稳定的值。3)青藏高原西北部LRTaveLRTmin在气温突变年前后具有显著的差异,LRTmax无显著的变化。其中,在气温突变年之后,LRTaveLRTmin有显著的上升趋势,表明青藏高原西北部地区的LRTaveLRTmin对区域气候变化的响应显著,而LRTmax对区域气候变化的响应不显著。研究将有效改善青藏高原西北部气温空间分布规律研究的不足,为区域气候变化研究及生态系统对气候响应等定量研究提供理论基础。

关键词: 近地表气温直减率, 平均气温, 青藏高原西北部, 最低气温, 最高气温

Abstract: The lapse rate of near surface air temperature is an important parameter in hydrologic and climatic simulations, especially in the high mountainous areas without enough observations. Based on the long-term meteorological measurement data (1951-2013) and near surface air temperature (Tmin, Tave, and Tmax) measured by self-established weather stations during 2012-2016, this study evaluates the spatial and temporal variations of near surface temperature lapse rate (βlocal) over the northwestern Tibetan Plateau. The results show that: 1) The near surface air temperature lapse rate has a spatiotemporal distribution pattern over the northwestern Tibetan Plateau and the constant environmental temperature lapse rate (0.65 ℃/100 m) throughout the year cannot represent the variability of the temperature-elevation relationship in complex terrain areas. The temperature has a significant downward trend as the elevation increases. LRTave, LRTmin, LRTmax in two regions showed different spatial variations. The LRTave, LRTmin, LRTmax at the meteorological stations are higher than the LRTave, LRTmin, LRTmax at the mountain observation stations. The LRTmin shows significant spatial variation, while the LRTmax has smaller spatial variation. 2) A significant seasonal variation can be observed in this region. At the meteorological stations, the trend is that higher values are observed in spring and summer and lower values in winter. As for the mountain observation stations, the LRTave, LRTmin, LRTmax are higher in summer and lower in winter. The LRTmax at the meteorological stations and the LRTmin at the mountain observation stations have significant seasonal variations. 3) The variations of βlocal for Tmax and Tmin in two regions exhibit similar monthly variation characteristics, that βlocal is lower in months of winter and spring and higher in other months. Monthly βlocal for Tmin is higher than Tave and Tmin at the meteorological stations through the whole year. The highest βlocal for Tmax and Tmin occurs in April, while the highest βlocal for Tave occurs in June. At the mountain observation stations, the highest βlocal for Tmax occurs in October, while the highest βlocal for Tave and Tmin occurs in April. 4) A significant increasing trend of βlocal for Tave and Tmin was observed after 1990. The difference of βlocal for Tmin before and after 1990 is more obvious. The differences of Tmax at different elevations before and after 1990 are weak. 5) The spatial and temporal variations of βlocal over the northwestern Tibetan Plateau are linked to geographic differences and climate factors. In addition, the controlling factors for the lapse rate in two regions are different. This research will provide a theoretical basis for quantitative researches of temperature distribution characteristics and mountain ecosystem’s response to climate change in mountain areas.

Key words: average air temperature, lapse rates of near-surface air temperature, maximum air temperature, minimum air temperature, the northwestern Tibetan Plateau

中图分类号: 

  • P423.1