自然资源学报 ›› 2018, Vol. 33 ›› Issue (4): 552-562.doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.20170244

• 资源经济 • 上一篇    下一篇

中国资源的进出口与产出率:演化、挑战及对策

曾现来1, 闫晓宇2, 张宇平3, 缪友萍3, 李金惠1,*   

  1. 1.清华大学环境学院环境模拟与污染控制国家重点联合实验室,北京 100084;
    2.埃克塞特大学Penryn校区环境与可持续研究所,Penryn, Cornwall TR10 9WT, 英国;
    3.国家电子废弃物循环利用工程技术研究中心,湖北 荆门 448124
  • 收稿日期:2017-03-27 修回日期:2017-08-04 出版日期:2018-04-10 发布日期:2018-04-10
  • 通讯作者: 李金惠(1965- ),男,教授、博士生导师,重点研究领域包括循环经济与区域可持续发展等。E-mail: jinhui@tsinghua.edu.cn
  • 作者简介:曾现来(1980- ),男,副研究员、硕士生导师,中国自然资源学会会员(S300002171M),研究领域为城市矿产资源管理及调控。E-mail: xlzeng@tsinghua.edu.cn
  • 基金资助:
    国家自然科学基金项目(71373141);国家社会科学基金重大项目(16ZDA071);中国博士后科学基金特别资助项目(2016T90104)

Importation, Exportation, and Productivity of Resources in China: Evolution, Challenges, and Solutions

ZENG Xian-lai1, YAN Xiao-yu2, ZHANG Yu-ping3, MIAO You-ping3, LI Jin-hui1   

  1. 1.State Key Joint Laboratory of Environment Simulation and Pollution Control, School of Environment, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084, China;
    2. Environment and Sustainability Institute, University of Exeter, Penryn Campus, Penryn, Cornwall TR10 9FE, UK;
    3. Chinese National WEEE Recycling Engineering Research Center, Jingmen 448124, China
  • Received:2017-03-27 Revised:2017-08-04 Online:2018-04-10 Published:2018-04-10
  • Supported by:
    National Natural Science Foundation of China, No. 71373141;National Social Sciences Foundation of China Major Program, No. 16ZDA071;China Postdoctoral Science Foundation, No. 2016T90104.

摘要: 资源可持续利用是实现中国可持续发展和生态文明的重要保障,然而过去30多年经济的快速发展带来了严重的资源短缺和环境污染。为了揭示1949年以来尤其是改革开放以来中国资源利用与经济发展之间的关系,论文系统梳理中国资源供给状况,总结中国资源进出口及资源产出率演化特点、面临的挑战及相应的对策。研究发现:中国近年来进口以金属矿产、石油、部分固体废弃产品构成的自然矿产和城市矿产资源为主,主要出口以工业产品、水海产品等为代表的资源类型,进出口的结构类型随年份变化不大,但进口量呈现快速增长的态势;中国资源产出率逐步增长,达到1.6元/kg,但仍与发达国家有较大差距。为了应对面临的挑战,未来中国应着力提升在全球价值链的地位,同时国内应大力发展循环经济,提高资源产出率。

关键词: 产品贸易, 循环经济, 资源, 资源产出率, 资源利用

Abstract: Sustainable utilization of resources is playing the vital role in realizing the sustainable development and ecological civilization in China. However, rapidly increasing economy in recent three decades has caused severe resource shortage and serious environmental pollution. To uncover the relationship between resource utilization and economic development since 1949, in particular since reform and open, we examined the evolution of importation, exportation and productivity of resources in China and revealed the confronted challenges and possible solutions. Main findings include: 1) Natural minerals and urban mines consisting of metal minerals, petroleum and part solid waste dominated the importation from 11 countries and regions in recent years. 2) Major exported resources were industrial products and aquatic & seawater products. The share and structure of product trade remains almost no change, but the total importation was growing dramatically since 2000. 3) China’s resource productivity reached 1.6 yuan/kg in 2010, far less than those of many industrial nations. During 2010-2015, resource productivity was boosted at the growth rate of 15%. Several emerging challenges are also outlined here: 1) Exportation of manufacturing has declined and lost traditional advantages for its low adding value, weak technical level, increasing labor cost and high dependence on core technology and market. 2) China’s potential challenges in global value chain are mainly from underdeveloped fundamental facilities, weak warehouse facility and increasing labor cost. Confronting challenges, China should enhance the role in global value chain by transferring from resource importation to product importation, and meanwhile carry out circular economy strategy to improve resource efficiency and decline environmental pollution.

Key words: circular economy, product trade, resources, resources productivity, resources utilization

中图分类号: 

  • F062.1