自然资源学报 ›› 2018, Vol. 33 ›› Issue (2): 302-312.doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.20170038

• 资源评价 • 上一篇    下一篇

农牧交错区农户生计分化及其对耕地利用的影响——以宁夏盐池县为例

王一超, 郝海广*, 张惠远, 翟瑞雪, 张强   

  1. 中国环境科学研究院,环境基准与风险评估国家重点实验室,北京 100012
  • 收稿日期:2017-01-16 修回日期:2017-06-09 出版日期:2018-02-23 发布日期:2018-02-23
  • 通讯作者: 郝海广(1981- ),男,汉族,内蒙古锡林郭勒盟人,博士,副研究员,研究方向为资源利用与生态环境效应。E-mail: haohg@craes.org.cn
  • 作者简介:王一超(1990- ),男,汉族,福建龙岩人,助理研究员,研究方向为资源利用和生态经济。E-mail: wangyc@craes.org.cn
  • 基金资助:
    国家自然科学基金项目(41501095,41471092)

Livelihood Diversification of Farm Household and Its Impact on the Utilization of Cultivated Land in Agro-pastoral Area:A case Study of Yanchi County, Ningxia Hui Autonomous Region

WANG Yi-chao, HAO Hai-guang, ZHANG Hui-yuan, ZHAI Rui-xue, ZHANG Qiang   

  1. State Key Laboratory of Environmental Criteria and Risk Assessment, Chinese Research Academy of Environmental Sciences, Beijing 100012, China
  • Received:2017-01-16 Revised:2017-06-09 Online:2018-02-23 Published:2018-02-23
  • Supported by:
    National Natural Science Foundation of China, No. 41501095 and 41471092. ]

摘要: 农户生计与耕地利用之间的关系已经成为理解人地关系的重要切入点。论文以宁夏盐池县为例,在可持续生计框架下,从农户生计资本和生产要素配置两个角度,探讨农户生计分化及其对耕地利用的影响。结果表明:1)盐池县兼业户与非农就业户合计占调查农户的58%,农户非农化现象普遍;2)劳动力越多、人均耕地越少的农户,其家庭非农收入占比越高,生计资本是农户生计分化的“推力”;3)务农机会成本越高的农户其生计分化程度越高,务农机会成本是农户生计分化的“拉力”;4)随着生计分化程度的增加,耕地利用的生产要素投入强度呈递减态势,但是兼业户的耕地利用效率高于纯农户和非农就业户。农牧交错区同时面临着生态保护、农牧业生产、脱贫攻坚等挑战,政策制定需充分考虑当地农户的生计特征与人地关系的演变规律,加强非农就业引导,鼓励农户土地流转,促进农户生计多样化,实现生态、经济、社会效益“共赢”发展。

关键词: 耕地利用, 农户生计分化, 生产要素, 盐池县

Abstract: Livelihood diversification of farm household has become a highlight phenomenon of rural social economy. There are different explanations on the mechanism of farmer’s livelihood diversification on the utilization of cultivated land. The influence mechanism and relationship among farmer’s livelihood diversification, cultivated land use changes and ecological environ-ment effects have become new entries for understanding man-earth relationship. In this paper, Yanchi County was taken as the study area, 222 farm households were surveyed to get the primary data. Under the framework of DFID’s sustainable livelihoods research, farm households’ livelihood capital was analyzed, and the diversity of livelihood was expressed with Shannon-Wiener index. Linear regression was used to analyze the driving factors of the livelihood diversification of farm households, and one-way AVOVA was applied to analyze the differences of farm households’ livelihood capital. Then, the effects of farm households’ livelihood on the utilization of cultivated land were analyzed. The main conclusions suggest that: 1) The proportion of non-farm income of farm household is between 0 to 96.6%. There are 78 part-time farming households and 41 non-farming households, accounting for 58% of the total surveyed farm households. 2) Human capital and natural capital are the two main factors leading to the livelihood diversification of farm households. The farm households with more labors and less per capita cultivated land or grassland have higher proportion of non-farm income. 3) High opportunity cost of farming labor promotes off-farm activities, and the households with higher opportunity cost have higher proportion of non-farm income. 4) There are significant differences among different types of farm household in the utilization of cultivated land. With the increase of livelihood diversification, the labor and land input decrease. The efficiency of cultivated land use of part-time farming households is the highest, and that of non-farming households is the lowest. Agro-pastoral interlaced ecological fragile region faces the challenges of ecosystem conservation, agricultural production and poverty alleviation. This paper argues that policymakers need to fully consider the changes of livelihood of local farmers, strengthen the guidance on off-farm employment, encourage cultivated land transferring, and promote the livelihood diversification of farm household to achieve win-win situation of social development, economic growth and ecosystem conservation.

Key words: livelihood diversification of farm household, production factor, utilization of cultivated land, Yanchi County

中图分类号: 

  • F327