自然资源学报 ›› 2018, Vol. 33 ›› Issue (1): 139-148.doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.20161270

• 资源评价 • 上一篇    下一篇

基于度-时法的哈尔滨冬季采暖强度评价

刘玉莲1, 2, 任国玉2, 3, *   

  1. 1. 黑龙江省气候中心,哈尔滨 150030;
    2. 中国地质大学(武汉)环境学院大气科学系,武汉430074;
    3. 中国气象局国家气候中心气候研究开放实验室,北京100081
  • 收稿日期:2016-11-21 修回日期:2017-01-04 出版日期:2018-01-20 发布日期:2018-01-20
  • 通讯作者: 任国玉(1958- ),男,辽宁康平人,研究员,研究方向为气候变化与古气候研究。E-mail: guoyoo@cma.gov.cn
  • 作者简介:刘玉莲(1974- ),女,黑龙江兰西人,硕士,高工,主要从事气候变化研究。E-mail: liuyl74@qq.com
  • 基金资助:

    资助项目:中国气象局气候变化专项(CCSF201842); 黑龙江省气象局自立项目(HQ2016026)

Analysis of Heating Intensity in Harbin Based on Degree-hours Method

LIU Yu-lian1, 3, REN Guo-yu2, 3, *   

  1. 1. Heilongjiang Climate Center, Harbin 150030, China;
    2. Department of Atmospheric Science, School of Environmental Science, China University of Geosciences, Wuhan 430074, China;
    3. Laboratory for Climate Studies, National Climate Center, CMA, Beijing 100081, China
  • Received:2016-11-21 Revised:2017-01-04 Online:2018-01-20 Published:2018-01-20
  • Supported by:

    The Special Project in Climate Change of China Meteorological Administration, No. CCSF201842; Self-reliance Project of Heilongjiang Province Meteorological Bureau, No. HQ2016026.

摘要:

采用度时法比度日法更能细致地反映采暖和制冷强度时间分布特征。论文应用度时法分析了哈尔滨采暖期内采暖强度的时间变化特征,获得如下结论:1)哈尔滨集中供暖时间为183 d,近10 a采暖期平均气温-7.7 ℃,平均气温距平最高值2.6 ℃(2007、2008年)、最低值 -2.0 ℃(2013年)。采暖期小时平均气温最高在14:00(-3.6 ℃),最低在06:00(-11.3 ℃)。 2)2005—2014年,哈尔滨年平均采暖强度1.1×105 ℃·h,最大1.2×105 ℃·h(2013年),最小1.0×105 ℃·h(2007年)。3)哈尔滨采暖期小时平均采暖强度为25.7 ℃·h,日内呈单峰分布,06:00采暖强度最大,为29.3 ℃·h,14:00采暖强度最小,为21.6 ℃·h。晚上21:00到次日上午9:00,采暖强度大于日平均值,而上午9:00到晚上21:00采暖强度则明显低于日平均水平。4)采暖期各月平均的小时采暖强度1月最大,为35.4 ℃·h,从大到小依次减少顺序是1、12、2、11、3、10、4,4月小时采暖强度仅为12.0 ℃·h。5)日内小时采暖强度最小值3、4月出现在15:00,其余月份在14:00;最大值1、2、12月出现在07:00,3、10、11月在06:00,4月在05:00。在每年1月中旬06:00~08:00,出现整个采暖期采暖强度极大值。

关键词: 采暖强度, 度日, 度时, 哈尔滨, 气温

Abstract:

Compared to degree-day, degree-hour is more realistic to indicate the heating intensity. Using the degree-hour method and hourly temperature data of 2005-2014, the characteristics of temperature and heating intensity of the heating period in Harbin City were analyzed. The main conclusions include: 1) During the 183 days of Harbin heating period, the average temperature was -7.7 ℃. Higher temperatures appeared in 2007 and 2008, which were 2.6 ℃ higher than the average, and the lower temperature occured in 2013, which was 2.0 ℃lower than the average. 2) During the period of 2005-2014, the average annual heating intensity was 1.1×105 ℃·h, with the maximum value 1.2×105 ℃·h (2013), and the minimum value 1.0×105 ℃·h (2007). The highest heating intensity was in January, and the lowest was in April; the maximum hourly mean heating intensity appeared in the early morning, and the minimum hourly mean heating intensity appeared in the early afternoon. 3) The hourly mean heating intensity of Harbin heating period was 25.7 ℃·h, and the diurnal distribution of hourly mean heating intensity was opposite to the temperature. The maximum hourly mean heating intensity, 29.3 ℃·h, was at 06:00 am, while the minimum value, 21.6 ℃·h, was at 14:00 pm. The heating intensity was generally higher than the average during the period from 21:00 pm to 09:00 am, and was lower than the average during the period from 09:00 am to 21:00 pm. 4) January has the maximum hourly mean heating intensity of 35.4 ℃·h, followed by December, February, November, March, October, and April had the minimum of only 12.0 ℃·h. 5) The minimum hourly mean heating intensity was at 15:00 pm in March and April, and was at 14:00 pm in other months of the heating period; the maximum hourly mean heating intensity was generally at 07:00 am in January, February and December, and happened at 06:00 am in March, October and November, and 05:00 am in April. The highest hourly mean heating intensity happened from 06:00 am to 08:00 am in mid-January.

Key words: degree-days, degree-hours, Harbin, heating intensity, temperature

中图分类号: 

  • TU832