自然资源学报 ›› 2017, Vol. 32 ›› Issue (12): 2065-2074.doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.20161142

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黄土丘陵沟壑区饲料油菜种植试验及其产业化前景——以延安治沟造地典型项目区为例

刘彦随1, 2, 3, 陈宗峰2, 李裕瑞1, 3, *, 冯巍仑2, 曹智1   

  1. 1. 中国科学院地理科学与资源研究所,北京 100101;
    2. 北京师范大学土地与城乡发展学院,北京 100875;
    3. 国土资源部退化及未利用土地整治工程重点实验室,北京 100101
  • 收稿日期:2016-10-21 修回日期:2017-09-19 出版日期:2017-12-20 发布日期:2017-12-20
  • 通讯作者: 李裕瑞(1983- ),男,汉族,四川隆昌人,副研究员,硕士生导师,研究方向为乡村地理与工程。E-mail:lyr2008@163.com
  • 作者简介:刘彦随(1965- ),男,汉族,陕西绥德人,研究员,博士生导师,长江学者特聘教授,主要从事土地利用和城乡发展研究。E-mail:liuys@igsnrr.ac.cn
  • 基金资助:
    国家重点研发项目(2017YFC0504701); 国家自然科学基金项目(41571166)

The Planting Technology and Industrial Development Prospects of Forage Rape in the Loess Hilly Area—A Case Study of Newly-increased Cultivated Land Through Gully Land Consolidation in Yan'an, Shaanxi Province

LIU Yan-sui1, 2, 3, CHEN Zong-feng2, LI Yu-rui1, 3, FENG Wei-lun2, CAO Zhi1   

  1. 1. Institute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resources Research, CAS, Beijing 100101, China;
    2. College of Land and Urban-rural Development, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875, China;
    3. Key Laboratory of Degraded and Unused Land Consolidation Engineering, Beijing 100101, China
  • Received:2016-10-21 Revised:2017-09-19 Online:2017-12-20 Published:2017-12-20
  • Supported by:
    National Key R & D Program of China, No.2017YFC0504701; National Natural Science Foundation of China, No.41571166

摘要: 沟道土地整治后,如何实现土地的持续、高效利用成为黄土高原丘陵沟壑区面临的突出问题,其关键在于如何充分发挥农牧交错区的比较优势,因地制宜发展种养结合的农业生产模式。依托延安市宝塔区羊圈沟和顾屯沟实验基地,通过大田试验研究了黄土丘陵沟壑区沟道土地整治后种植饲料油菜的技术要点,并探讨了基于饲料油菜种植构建新型农业生产模式的思路。结果表明:1)延安地区具备种植春季饲料油菜的自然生态适宜性,春播饲料油菜播种量以3.9~5.1 kg/hm2为宜,苗期密度宜控制在22.5万株/hm2左右;2)饲料油菜种植需要一定的田间管理,做到施足底肥,适当追肥,间苗遵循“五去五留”原则,4~5片真叶期定苗并适当追肥浇水;3)根据油菜多功能性,黄土丘陵区可发展饲用、菜用+饲用、菜用+观光+油料等多种产品组合模式,科学推广油菜种植可以促进集“种植+养殖+加工+观光”等于一体的多功能农业发展。

关键词: 发展前景, 饲料油菜, 延安, 栽培技术, 治沟造地

Abstract: The sustainable and efficient utilization of land resource has become a prominent problem in loess hilly-gully region since gully land consolidation. The key issue is to bring the advantages in the agro-pastoral ecotone into full play and develope an agriculture production pattern combining farming and animal husbandry according to the local conditions. This paper analyzed the effects of planting date and seeding density on the growth characteristics and yield of forage rape based on the plot experiments in the Yangjuangou catchment and the Gutun catchment and then explored the new agriculture production mode in the agro-pastoral ecotone. The results indicated that: 1) The seeding date of forage rape should be earlier, mid-April is good, and the suitable density of spring forage rape is 225 000 per hectare. The appropriate seeding rate of spring forage rape is 3.9-5.1 kg/hm2. 2) The spring forage rape needs enough base fertilizer and appropriate topdressing. The principle of “five abandon five reserve” should be followed when thinning out, and singling and watering should be done in the 4-5 leaf stage. 3) According to the multifunction of forage rape, the modes of livestock breeding, vegetable-livestock breeding, vegetable-sightseeing-rapeseed oil can be developed in Yan'an.

Key words: development prospect, forage rape, gully land consolidation, planting technology, Yan'an

中图分类号: 

  • S634.3