自然资源学报 ›› 2017, Vol. 32 ›› Issue (2): 223-234.doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.20160305

• 资源生态 • 上一篇    下一篇

木林子自然保护区不同群落类型主要优势种群的生态位研究

林勇, 艾训儒*, 姚兰, 黄伟, 陈斯   

  1. 湖北民族学院林学园艺学院,湖北 恩施 445000
  • 收稿日期:2016-03-23 出版日期:2017-02-15 发布日期:2017-02-15
  • 作者简介:林勇(1989- ),男,湖北利川人,硕士研究生,从事森林生态与生物多样性保护理论研究。E-mail: 528262031@qq.com *通信作者简介:艾训儒(1967- ),男,湖北利川人,教授,博士,从事环境因子对森林生态系统的影响研究。E-mail: 1664755166@qq.com
  • 基金资助:
    湖北省教育厅重点项目(D20122901)

Niches of Main Dominant Species of Different CommunityTypes in Mulinzi Nature Reserve

LIN Yong, AI Xun-ru, YAO Lan, HUANG Wei, CHEN Si   

  1. School of Forestry and Horticulture, Hubei Institute for Nationalities, Enshi 445000, China
  • Received:2016-03-23 Online:2017-02-15 Published:2017-02-15
  • Supported by:
    The Education Department of Hubei Province Key Project, No. D20122901. ]

摘要: 为定量分析木林子自然保护区不同群落类型主要优势种群的生态位,以每个样地为综合资源位,采用Simpson指数的倒数和Shannon-Wiener生态位宽度公式及Pianka生态位重叠公式分别对自然恢复20 a、35 a和100 a左右次生林群落主要优势种的生态位宽度及重叠进行测度,比较分析主要优势种在不同群落类型中的生态位变化及原因,同时对种群的环境适应能力及其随自然恢复阶段的变化等方面进行探讨。结果表明:1)青冈(Cyclobalanopsis glauca)属于木林子自然保护区亚热带常绿落叶阔叶混交林的建群种,生态位宽度最大(群落ⅠB'(SW)i 为0.750、B'(L)i 为0.863,群落ⅡB'(SW)i 为0.630、B'(L)i 为0.685,群落ⅢB'(SW)i 为0.625、B'(L)i 为0.658),与其他种群的生态位重叠程度高,自然恢复年限越长,其优势地位越明显。2)人为干扰和光照是影响该区域不同群落类型主要优势种生态位变化的主要因子。3)不同群落类型主要优势种的平均生态位宽度值B'(SW)i 为0.603、B'(L)i 为0.570,平均生态位重叠值为0.564,表明各种群生态幅广,资源利用谱较宽,群落结构复杂;各种群对环境资源的利用性竞争不激烈。4)珙桐(Davidia involucrata)种群的重要值和生态位宽度值最小(IV为0.181,B'(SW)i 为0.292,B'(L)i 为0.109),与其他种群的生态位重叠值小或没有重叠,表明它对群落环境的适应能力及对资源的利用能力弱且与其他种群的生态位产生了一定程度分化。各优势种的生态位随群落物种组成变化而变化,揭示了优势种的生态位随自然恢复阶段的变化规律。

关键词: 群落, 生态位宽度, 生态位重叠, 种群, 重要值

Abstract: The paper quantitatively analyzes the niches of main plant species of different community types in Mulinzi Nature Reserve. With each sample as a comprehensive resource, the Simpson index, Shannon-Wiener niche width formula and Pianka niche overlap formula are used to measure the niche breadth and overlap of main dominant species in the secondary forest communities with natural recovery of 20 years, 35 years and around 100 years, respectively. The niches changes of the main dominant species of different community types are compared and the reasons are analyzed. At the same time, the environment adaptability of the populations in different natural recovery phases are discussed. The results show that: 1) Cyclobalanopsis glauca belongs to the constructive species of the subtropical evergreen and deciduous broad-leaved mixed forest in Mulinzi Nature Reserve, having the maximum of niche breadth (in CommunityⅠ B'(SW)i is 0.750, B'(L)i is 0.863; in CommunityⅡ B'(SW)i is 0.630, B'(L)i is 0.685; and in Community Ⅲ B'(SW)i is 0.625, B'(L)i is 0.658) and high degree of niche overlap with other populations. The longer the natural recovery, the more obvious its dominant position. 2) Human disturbance and light are the main factors that affect the main dominant species niche changes of different community types in the area. 3) In different community types, the average niche breadth value of the main dominant species are: B'(SW)i is 0.603, B'(L)i is 0.570, and the average niche overlap value is 0.564. It shows that in all kinds of communities the ecological amplitudes and the resource utilization spectrums are wide, and the community structures are complex, and the competition of environmental resources between various groups is not fierce. 4) The importance value and niche breadth of Davidia involucrata are the lowest (The IV is 0.181, B'(SW)i is 0.292 and B'(L)i is 0.109). It has little or no overlap with other populations. It shows that its adaptability to the community environment and its resources utilization ability are weak, and it has a certain degree of differentiation with the ecological niche of other populations. The species composition of the community is not the same because of the different community structure and natural recovery, so the niche of the dominant populations in different community types in the main forest layer changes in this area. It reveals the rule that the niche of dominant species changes with natural recovery, which provides an important reference for the operation and management of this kind of forests.

Key words: community, important value, niche breadth, niche overlap, population

中图分类号: 

  • Q948.1