自然资源学报 ›› 2016, Vol. 31 ›› Issue (11): 1958-1968.doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.20160046

• 资源研究方法 • 上一篇    下一篇

水力发电的能值转换率计算方法

贺成龙   

  1. 嘉兴学院建筑工程学院,嘉兴 314001
  • 收稿日期:2016-01-11 修回日期:2016-06-11 出版日期:2016-11-20 发布日期:2016-11-20
  • 作者简介:作者简介:贺成龙(1970- ),男,汉族,四川安岳人,博士,副教授,主要研究方向为大型工程建设的环境影响定量评价。E-mail:zjxuhcl@163.com
  • 基金资助:
    教育部人文社会科学研究规划基金项目(14YJAZH030); 浙江省教育厅项目(FX2014071)

Transformity Calculation Method of Hydropower

HE Cheng-long   

  1. College of Civil Engineering & Architecture, Jiaxing University, Jiaxing 314001, China
  • Received:2016-01-11 Revised:2016-06-11 Online:2016-11-20 Published:2016-11-20
  • Supported by:
    Humanities and Social Sciences Foundation Program of Ministry of Education, No.14YJAZH030; Education Department Program of Zhejiang Province, No.FX2014071

摘要: 能值转换率是能值计算分析的关键参数。论文根据资源产品的特征和属性,在分析水电工程建设主要投入产出的基础上,提出了水力发电的能值转换率计算方法。案例研究表明:1)中国水力发电的能值转换率总体呈减小的趋势,由2003年的2.41×1012 seJ/kWh减小到2014年的5.69×1011 seJ/kWh,但于2011年后逐步趋于稳定;2)中国水力发电的能值转换率,与美国水力发电的能值转换率相当,高于利用太阳能发电技术输出的电力的能值转换率,低于热电厂输出的电力的能值转换率;3)影响中国水力发电能值转换率的主要因素是水库淹没及水利设施占用的土地,以及土石方等不可更新资源的投入。研究提出了减小水力发电能值转换率的4个有效途径,并得到了水力发电的能值转换率,可为水电工程生态效应定量分析提供基础数据。

关键词: 能值分析理论, 能值转换率, 水力发电

Abstract: Emergy analysis theory is a new quantitative analysis method to assess ecological effects of hydropower projects. In order to evaluate unified and quantitative ecological effects of hydropower project with emergy analysis, hydropower transformiy must be calculated firstly. Transformity is the key parameter for emergy calculation analysis. Transformity configuration system of hydropower project is established, its input being the hydropower project construction, and its output being the positive and negative effects on social, economic and ecological environment. According to the characteristics and attributes of resources and products, the transformity calculation method of hydropower is developed based on the input-output analysis of hydropower projects. The method can calculate the hydropower transformity not only for all hydropower projects of a country, but also for a specific hydropower project. Accurately accounting the inputs and outputs of the hydropower project construction is the basic work to calculate the hydropower transformity. The quality of the account will influence the accuracy of the hydropower transformity calculation results. The studies are shown as follows. Firstly, the hydropower transformiy of China showed a decreasing trend, from 2.41×1012 seJ/kWh in 2003 to 5.69×1011 seJ/kWh in 2014. But after 2011, it gradually stabilized. This means that the effectiveness of hydropower project construction was improved, and the effects of hydropower development on social, economic and ecological environment became stable. But it will stabilize while the technology and management level of the production is relatively stable. Secondly, Chinese hydropower transformity is comparable to the hydropower transformity in the US, higher than the transformity of solar power generation and lower than the transformity of thermal electric power. This shows that the transformity for the same product is different in countries with different production and management levels. At the same time, the transformity for the same product may be also different due to the different production modes. The hydropower transformity obtained in this article is based on all Chinese hydropower projects, and it reflects the overall situation of hydropower projects construction in China. The system boundary should be determined reasonably when a single hydropower project is used as the research object. Thirdly, the main factors affecting Chinese hydropower tansformity are the reservoir inundation, land occupied by water conservancy facilities, and nonrenewable resources input such as earthwork and stonework. At last, four effective ways are put forward to decrease the hydropower transformity. They are rational management to reduce losses caused by floods and droughts, ecological migration to reduce the impact of immigration on society, scientific planning to reduce reservoir inundation, optimizing engineering design and construction to reduce consumption in kind. This study can provide the basis data for the ecological effect quantitative analysis of hydropower projects.

Key words: emergy analysis theory, hydropower, transformity

中图分类号: 

  • X37