自然资源学报 ›› 2016, Vol. 31 ›› Issue (11): 1832-1843.doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.20151251

• 资源生态 • 上一篇    下一篇

近50 a塔里木河流域“四源”农业用水与干流生态系统结构变化关系研究

孟凡浩1, 2, 古丽·加帕尔1*, *, 包安明1, 郭辉1, 2, 罗敏1, 2, 刘铁1   

  1. 1. 中国科学院新疆生态与地理研究所,荒漠与绿洲生态国家重点实验室,乌鲁木齐 830011;
    2. 中国科学院大学,北京 100049
  • 收稿日期:2015-11-13 修回日期:2016-04-13 出版日期:2016-11-20 发布日期:2016-11-20
  • 作者简介:孟凡浩(1990- ),男,内蒙古扎赉特旗人,博士研究生,研究方向为土地利用/覆盖变化与水文生态的关系。E-mail:mfh320@163.com *通信作者简介:古丽·加帕尔(1973- ),女(维吾尔族),新疆乌鲁木齐人,博士,副研究员,主要从事干旱区植被遥感定量反演及生态遥感研究。E-mail:glmr@ms.xjb.ac.cn
  • 基金资助:
    新疆维吾尔自治区科技厅重大科技专项(201230117-1); 国家自然科学基金项目(41171295); 中国科学院战略性先导科技专项(XDA05050104); “千人计划”——新疆项目(374231001)

Analysis on the Relationship between Agriculture Water Consumption of Four Source Rivers and the Change of Ecosystem Structure of the Mainstream in Tarim River Basin in Recent 50 Years

MENG Fan-hao1, 2, Guli JIAPAER1, BAO An-ming1, GUO Hui1, 2, LUO Min1, 2, LIU Tie1   

  1. 1. State Key Laboratory of Desert and Oasis Ecology, Xinjiang Institute of Ecology and Geography, CAS, Urumqi 830011, China;
    2. University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, China
  • Received:2015-11-13 Revised:2016-04-13 Online:2016-11-20 Published:2016-11-20
  • Supported by:
    A Major Grant from the Xinjiang Department of Science and Technology, No.201230117-1; National Natural Science Foundation of China, No.41171295; Strategic Leading Science and Technology Projects of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, China, No.XDA05050104; One Thousand Youth Talents Plan of China (Xinjiang Project), No.374231001

摘要: 塔里木河源流区农业用水量直接影响下放至干流的水量,从而间接影响干流区生态系统结构的稳定性。为此,研究基于农业水足迹反映农业用水变化情况,进而分析塔里木河流域“四源”农业用水与干流生态系统结构变化的关系,为后续维护干流生态系统结构稳定性决策提供科学参考依据。结果表明:1960年代—1990年塔里木河“四源”农用地总量变化不大,阿克苏河流域新开垦量与叶尔羌河流域减少量相当,农业水足迹同时呈缓慢小幅增长,干流生态系统结构变化以自然绿洲生态系统缩小和荒漠生态系统扩张为主;以2000年为分界点,2000年之前“四源”农用地和农业水足迹显著增加,导致干流生态系统中自然水域生态系统、自然绿洲生态系统和荒漠生态系统皆有不同程度的萎缩,“四源”农业用水消耗是干流生态系统恶化的直接原因;2000年之后在生态治理工程的影响下,虽然“四源”农用地和总农业水足迹在持续增加,但是节水工程年均节约近27.22×108 m³,保证了下游生态系统的需水量,使其得到一定恢复。

关键词: 农业水足迹, 农用地, 生态系统结构, 塔里木河流域

Abstract: The agricultural water consumption in the source area of Tarim River is related to the water discharge of the mainstream, and indirectly influences the ecological stability in the basin. To know the situation of farmland expansion and water consumption in the Four Source Rivers regions, the area change, the expansion rate of farmland and the agricultural water footprint in this region during 1960s-2013 were analyzed, and the relations between them were investigated. The results indicated that: 1) Since the newly developed area of farmland in Aksu River Basin was almost equivalent to the reduction of farmland in Yarkant River Basin, the agricultural land in Four Source Rivers regions was stable during 1960s-1990. However, the agricultural water footprint increased slowly during this period. As a result, the ecosystem structure in the mainstream area changed. The desert expanded, and the oases shrank. 2) The year of 2000 was a dividing point. Both the agricultural land area and the agricultural water footprint in source areas of the Tarim River Basin were increased before 2000. As a result, the natural aquatic ecosystem, oasis ecosystem and desert ecosystem shrank in varying degrees. Excess consumption of agricultural water in source areas of the Tarim River Basin was the direct reason of ecosystem deterioration in the mainstream area of Tarim River. 3) Although the farmland area and the agricultural water footprint in source areas of the Tarim River Basin continued to grow after 2000, the ecosystems along the Tarim River were recovered because of water-saving projects, which saved nearly 2.722 billion m3 of water annually and ensured the water demand of ecosystems in the mainstream area of Tarim River.

Key words: agricultural water footprint, ecosystem structure, farmland, Tarim River Basin

中图分类号: 

  • F323.213