自然资源学报 ›› 2016, Vol. 31 ›› Issue (5): 743-754.doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.20150557

• 资源生态 • 上一篇    下一篇

我国人工林生态系统的水成本核算

鲁晨曦1, 张军泽2, 赵廷阳3, 曹世雄3*, *   

  1. 1. 清华大学地球系统与科学研究中心,北京 100084;
    2. 北京师范大学地理学与遥感科学学院,北京 100875;
    3. 北京林业大学经济管理学院,北京 100083
  • 收稿日期:2015-05-20 修回日期:2015-10-09 出版日期:2016-05-20 发布日期:2016-05-19
  • 作者简介:鲁晨曦(1993- ),女,汉族,博士研究生,主要从事气候变化生态学方向研究。E-mail:luchenxicc1023@163.com *通信作者简介:曹世雄(1965- ),男,汉族,教授(博士后),主要从事林业经济与政策学方向研究。E-mail:shixiongcao@126.com
  • 基金资助:
    国家社科基金重大项目(11&ZD042)

Water Costs of Afforestation and Natural-restoration in China

LU Chen-xi1, ZHANG Jun-ze2, ZHAO Ting-yang3, CAO Shi-xiong3   

  1. 1. Center for Earth System Science, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084, China;
    2. College of Geography, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875, China;
    3. College of Economic Management, Beijing Forestry University, Beijing 100875, China
  • Received:2015-05-20 Revised:2015-10-09 Online:2016-05-20 Published:2016-05-19
  • Supported by:
    National Social Science Foundation of China, No.11&ZD042

摘要: 健康的生态系统能够提供水土保持、防风固沙、涵养水源、调节气候、减少环境污染、增加游憩地与文化保护等良好的生态服务价值。然而,生态环境修复与建设不仅需要巨大的经费投入,也需要占用大量的自然资源。为了正确理解人工造林活动的成本问题,论文用7种蒸散发模型首次对我国1949年以来人工造林和自然植被恢复的耗水量及人工造林耗水量的机会成本进行计算,初步了解人工修复活动对水资源供给的影响。结果显示,1952—2011年我国人工造林累计耗水量比自然修复多767×108 m3,水机会成本累计536×108元。为了维护生态平衡,生态修复(尤其是人工修复)和经济活动都应关注水资源的成本问题,通过不同措施的成本效益比较,最大限度地降低生态修复成本,这是修复生态学需要面对的重要科学问题之一。

关键词: 成本收益, 可持续发展, 人工造林, 生态服务净价值, 资源节约

Abstract: It’s well known that a healthy ecosystem has potentials in conservation of water and soil, prevention of wind erosion, refining regional water environment, regulating climatic, reducing pollution, increasing recreation and cultural protection, and other ecosystem services. However, ecological environment restoration and construction not only demands a huge amount of investment, but also takes up large quantities of water and soil resource. In order to properly figure out the costs of afforestation programs, for the first time, in this paper we used seven evapotranspiration models to calculate the water consumption of afforestation and natural vegetation and the water cost of afforestation since 1949. We found that the water consumption of afforestation was more than that of natural vegetation by 767×108 m3, and the accumulative opportunity cost of water was 536×108 yuan. To maintain the ecological balance, any ecological restoration, especially artificial restoration, and socio-economic activities should spare no efforts to pay attention on water cost. It is an essential issue encountered by restoration ecology to minimize the cost of restoration and improve the net value of ecosystem service by comparing cost-effectiveness of different measures.

Key words: afforestation, cost-effectiveness, net value of ecological service, resource-saving, sustainable development

中图分类号: 

  • F326.2