自然资源学报 ›› 2015, Vol. 30 ›› Issue (11): 1846-1859.doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2015.11.006

• 资源生态 • 上一篇    下一篇

草原生态补偿:减畜和补偿的对等关系

胡振通, 孔德帅, 魏同洋, 靳乐山*   

  1. 中国农业大学 人文与发展学院,北京 100193
  • 收稿日期:2014-09-23 修回日期:2015-04-07 出版日期:2015-11-14 发布日期:2015-11-14
  • 作者简介:胡振通(1985- ),男,浙江宁波人,博士研究生,主要研究方向为区域经济、草原生态补偿。E-mail: huzhentong1985@163.com *通信作者简介:靳乐山(1965- ),男,博士,教授,博士生导师,主要研究方向为资源环境经济与政策。E-mail: Jinls@cau.edu.cn
  • 基金资助:

    国家社会科学基金项目“草原生态保护补助奖励机制对不同规模牧户的影响研究”(13BJY031); 中央高校基本科研业务费专项资金项目“京津冀水安全与生态补偿战略研究”(2015TC035)

Grassland Eco-compensation: Equivalent Relationship between Livestock Reduction and Compensation

HU Zhen-tong, KONG De-shuai, WEI Tong-yang, JIN Le-shan   

  1. College of Humanities and Development Studies, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100193, China
  • Received:2014-09-23 Revised:2015-04-07 Online:2015-11-14 Published:2015-11-14

摘要:

中国草原生态补偿是通过补助和奖励的政策手段达到减畜和草畜平衡的政策目标,最终使牧民收入不减少的条件下草原退化得到减缓。论文首先从理论上提出一个分析草原生态补偿减畜和补偿对等关系的框架,然后以内蒙古四子王旗查干补力格苏木为例,对草原生态补偿减畜和补偿的对等关系进行了实证分析。实证分析结果表明:因为超载情况存在空间异质性和牧户差异性,实际的超载率较统计的超载率被低估了。补偿在区域总量上是不足够的,维持区域总量补偿足够的草畜平衡奖励标准应为28.5元/hm2。减畜和补偿存在严重的不对等关系,47.9%的资金给了那些不需要减畜的牧户,减畜比例0%;5.5%的资金给了那些需要减畜也愿意减畜的牧户,减畜比例1.2%;46.6%的资金给了那些需要减畜但只愿意部分减畜的牧户,减畜比例98.8%。预期能够实现的减畜比例仅为8.3%,由于牧户超载程度存在显著的差异,预期能够实现的减畜比例对草畜平衡奖励标准和每羊单位损失均不敏感。为了达到草原生态保护的目的,保障减畜的有效达成,应该将超载程度纳入草畜平衡奖励的政策设计中。中小牧户是草原超载的主体,“将超载程度纳入草畜平衡奖励的政策设计”的真正含义是“将草畜平衡奖励向中小牧户做出适当倾斜”。“超越”草畜平衡奖励,减少中小牧户的数量,扩大牧户的草场经营规模,促进牧区牧户的适度规模经营才是实现草原可持续发展的出路所在。

Abstract:

Through the policy instruments of subsidy and reward, the goal of China grassland eco-compensation is to achieve livestock reduction and grassland-livestock balance, eventually to slow down the grassland degradation under the condition of without reducing herders’ income. This paper firstly gives a theoretical framework to analyze the equivalent relationship between livestock reduction and compensation in the grassland eco-compensation scheme, and then conducts empirical study based on the field research in Chaganbulige Town, Siziwang Banner, Inner Monglia. The results show that the actual rate of overgrazing is undervalued by statistic result due to the spatial heterogeneity of overgrazing and the difference between herders. The compensation is not enough for the total area, and the reward for grassland-livestock balance to maintain enough compensation should be 28.5 yuan/hm2. There exists serious non-equivalent relationship between livestock reduction and compensation, herders who do not need to reduce livestock take 47.9% of the funds and 0% of the total amount of livestock to be reduced, herders who need and be willing to reduce livestock take 5.5% of the funds and 1.2% of the total amount of livestock to be reduced, herders who need and be only willing to reduced part of livestock takes 46.6% of the funds and 98.8% of the total amount of livestock to be reduced. The expected proportion of livestock reduction to be achieved is only 8.3%. Due to the significant difference in the degree of overgrazing, the expected proportion of livestock reduction to be achieved is sensitive to neither the reward for grassland-livestock balance nor the loss per sheep unit. In order to achieve the purpose of the grassland ecological protection, to ensure the task of livestock reduction, we should take the degree of overgrazing as one of the elements of reward for grassland-livestock balance. Small and medium-sized holders are the main part of grassland overgrazing, so the true meaning of “taking overgrazing degree as one of the elements of reward for grassland-livestock balance” is “small and medium-sized holders should take more proportion of reward”. Except for the reward for grassland-livestock balance, reducing the number of small and medium-sized holders, expanding the scale of the pasture and promote the moderate scale management is the most important way to realize grassland sustainable development.

中图分类号: 

  • S812