自然资源学报 ›› 2015, Vol. 30 ›› Issue (9): 1486-1498.doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2015.09.006

• 资源评价 • 上一篇    下一篇

近25 a来江苏中部沿海盐沼分布时空演变及围垦影响分析

孙超, 刘永学2, *, 李满春, 赵赛帅3, 周旻曦   

  1. 1. 南京大学 a. 江苏省地理信息技术重点实验室, b. 中国南海研究协同创新中心, c. 地理信息科学系,南京 210023;
    2. 江苏省地理信息资源开发与利用协同创新中心,南京 210023;
    3.宁波市测绘设计研究院,浙江 宁波 315042
  • 收稿日期:2014-07-15 修回日期:2015-02-28 出版日期:2015-09-15 发布日期:2015-09-15
  • 通讯作者: 刘永学(1976- ),男,教授,博士生导师,主要从事遥感与GIS应用研究。E-mail: yongxue@nju.edu.cn
  • 作者简介:孙超(1989- ),男,博士研究生,研究方向为海岸带遥感与GIS应用。E-mail: sunchaonju@yeah.net
  • 基金资助:
    国家科技支撑计划(2012BAH28B04); 国家自然科学基金(41471068, 41171325, 41230751); 新世纪优秀人才支持计划(NCET-12-0264)

Spatiotemporal Evolution of Salt Marsh and Influential Analysis of Reclamation of Jiangsu Middle Coast in Recent 25 Years

SUN Chao, LIU Yong-xue2, LI Man-chun, ZHAO Sai-shuai3, ZHOU Min-xi   

  1. 1. a. Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Geographic Information Science and Technology, b. Collaborative Innovation Center for the South China Sea Studies, c. Department of Geographic Information Science, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210023, China;
    2. Jiangsu Center for Collaborative Innovation in Geographical Information Resource Development and Application, Nanjing 210023, China;
    3. Ningbo Institute of Surveying and Mapping, Ningbo 315042, China
  • Received:2014-07-15 Revised:2015-02-28 Online:2015-09-15 Published:2015-09-15

摘要: 江苏沿海海涂广阔,其上分布着种类众多的盐沼植被。近些年来,大范围的围垦活动导致盐沼分布发生了巨大变化,充分把握围垦活动下盐沼分布与扩张规律,可为滩涂资源开发和环境保护提供决策支持。基于此,研究结合了NDVI和局部OTSU方法通过遥感影像提取了近25 a间7个时期的江苏中部沿海的盐沼并数字化出各时期新增垦区,利用GIS技术分析了盐沼分布的时空演变并讨论了盐沼对滩涂围垦的响应。结果表明:① 盐沼面积历经先增后减的过程,26 a间约减少10%,在2000年后堤外盐沼宽度与覆盖度不断降低,盐沼分布由弶港北岸多、弶港南岸少的格局逐渐转变为新洋至斗龙港口岸段多、其余海岸少的格局;② 滩涂围垦造成的盐沼消亡面积达569.47 km2,占盐沼消亡总量的85.4%,对弶港以北盐沼影响极大;③ 潮间带的围垦活动能够改变原潮滩的沉积环境,对盐沼扩张起到了一定的推动作用,这意味着盐沼有望在围垦后得以逐步恢复,但若围垦太快,堤外余留盐沼过少,盐沼恢复将难以为继。

Abstract: There are a variety of salt marshes in wide tideland of Jiangsu coast. In recent years, the distribution pattern of salt marshes has changed dramatically caused by reclamation activities on a large scale. Deep understanding on the distribution and expansion of salt marshes under the impact of reclamation will help us propose corresponding decisions supporting resource development and environment protection of tideland. Taking above into account, we identified salt marshes along middle segment of Jiangsu coast using remote sensing images and NDVI with local OTSU method as well as digitized reclamation from images, and obtained the information of salt marshes and reclamation at 7 time points in recent 25 years. And then we analyzed spatiotemporal evolution of salt marshes and their response to the reclamation based on a variety of GIS methods. The main results showed that: 1) The area of salt marshes experienced a slight increase and then followed by a sharp decrease with almost 10% (324.40 km2 in 1987, 291.04 km2 in 2013) total area reduce. After 2000, with the rapid disappearance of salt marshes, the width of salt marshes outside dim became narrower gradually. The overall pattern of distribution also changed: the majority of salt marshes distributed north to the Jiang Harbor before 2000, but more and more concentrated on the coast between Xinyang Harbor and Doulong Harbor in recent years. 2) The area of disappeared salt marshes, which resulted from reclamation, reached 569.47 km2 in the past 26 years, accounting for 85.4% of the total disappearance. The intense reclamation activities impacted greatly on the native salt marshes in the coast area north to the Jiang Hrabor. Nowadays, the most part of middle segment of Jiangsu coastal area was only covered by Spartina alterniflora. 3) Reclamation in intertidal region could change surrounding sedimental environment, which played a certain role in the expansion of salt marshes. That means salt marshes may be restored after the reclamation. Nevertheless, if remained salt marshes outside dim were too less, the restoration would be unsustainable. Therefore, we had better slow down the speed as well as limit the size of reclamation, and pay more attentions on some fragile coasts, in order to achieve the sustainable development and utilization of tidal flat in the future.

中图分类号: 

  • TP79:X171