自然资源学报 ›› 2014, Vol. 29 ›› Issue (11): 1978-1989.doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2014.11.015

• 专题论坛 • 上一篇    

跨国世界自然遗产保护现状评述

陆小璇   

  1. 北京大学城市与环境学院, 北京100871
  • 收稿日期:2013-11-06 修回日期:2014-02-09 出版日期:2014-11-20 发布日期:2014-11-20
  • 作者简介:陆小璇(1986-),女,北京人,博士研究生,研究方向为跨国资源管理,美国哈佛大学访问学者(2014-2016年)。E-mail:lafrontiers.xxl@gmail.com

Review of Transnational Natural World Heritage Conservation

LU Xiao-xuan   

  1. College of Urban and Environmental Sciences, Beijing 100871, China
  • Received:2013-11-06 Revised:2014-02-09 Online:2014-11-20 Published:2014-11-20

摘要: 国家疆界的划分原则常常与自然资源及生态功能区划分的原则相悖;动植物种群分布、生态学过程以及地质构造分布,并不因政治边界的存在而消失。这种情况为一些自然遗产地的统一与完整性保护制造了障碍。在过去的几十年中,人们对自然资源管理以及对生物多样性管理的关注点,由原来对特定区域的保护转向强调景观尺度下生态系统连续性的保护。连续性保护理念在跨国项目中体现为跨界保护理念,使连接分散的生态区域之间的动态过程成为可能。跨国世界自然遗产的建立与保护已成为推进跨界资源保护的重要一环。结合相关案例分析,论文从发展历程、分类以及管理三个方面对跨国世界自然遗产保护现状进行评述。资源的不可持续利用目前被认为是对世界遗产保护的最大威胁。跨国自然遗产将通过促进多边合作,在遗产保护与可持续发展之间建立平衡。

Abstract: International and internal administrative borders are political, not ecological or geological boundaries. The connectivity of flora and fauna distribution, ecological processes, as well as geological structure expands across national boundaries. In fact, international border areas contain some of the most intact ecosystems in the world. Over the last few decades, management of natural resources and biological diversity has moved from a site-level focus toward broader landscape approaches, emphasizing connectivity conservation. Connectivity conservation when applies across borders is transboundary conservation, which tends to create physical linkages or enable the occurrence of dynamic processes to connect the fragmented environment. The establishment and conservation of transnational natural world heritage has become an integral part of transboundary conservation.#br#Using typology and case study as basic research strategies, this paper reviews the conservation of transnational natural world heritage from three aspects: history, classification, and management. Since effective management of the boundaries will depend greatly on the type of site, classification of transnational natural world heritage sites based on their landscape types is necessary and significant for the transnational resource management. Attempting to reveal the dynamic of world heritage conservation, this paper also classifies the world heritage sites according to their border condition and site distribution: the establishment and extension of the heritage sites, even their excision and cancelation, reflect the changing relationship between human beings and the natural resources, as well as our changing perception of natural system. Being nominated and inscribed on the world heritage list is only the first step towards the preservation of site value. Unfortunately there can be few natural world heritage sites that do not face some kind of threat, ranging from localized problems, to regional- scale threats and global threats. Management actions to contain and minimize the effect these threats have on a site are essential for world heritage conservation. Unsustainable resource use is now among the most significant threats to conservation. The establishment and conservation of transnational natural world heritage enable bilateral and multilateral cooperation, promoting a balance between world heritage conservation and social and economic sustainable development.

中图分类号: 

  • G122