自然资源学报 ›› 2014, Vol. 29 ›› Issue (9): 1453-1464.doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2014.09.001

• 资源生态 •    下一篇

PnET-CN模型对东亚森林生态系统碳通量模拟的适用性和不确定性分析

石浩1,2, 王绍强1, 黄昆1,2, 周蕾1,2, 王辉民1, 韩士杰3, 周国逸4, Takeshi Ohta5, Nobuko Saigusa6, Ichiro Tamagawa7, Takashi Hirano8   

  1. 1. 中国科学院地理科学与资源研究所生态系统网络观测与模拟重点实验室, 北京100101, 中国;
    2. 中国 科学院大学, 北京100049, 中国;
    3. 中国科学院沈阳应用生态研究所, 沈阳110016, 中国;
    4. 中国科学院华 南植物园, 广州510650, 中国;
    5. Graduate School of Bioagricultural Sciences, Nagoya University, Chikusa-ku 4648601, Japan;
    6. Center for Global Environmental Research, National Institute for Environmental Studies, Tsukuba Ibaraki 3058506, Japan;
    7. River Basin Research Center, Gifu University, Gifu 5011193, Japan;
    8. Graduate School of Agriculture, Hokkaido University, Sapporo 0608589, Japan
  • 收稿日期:2013-08-19 修回日期:2013-11-23 出版日期:2014-09-20 发布日期:2014-09-20
  • 通讯作者: 王绍强,湖北襄樊人,研究员,主要从事生态系统碳循环研究。E-mail:sqwang@igsnrr.ac.cn E-mail:sqwang@igsnrr.ac.cn
  • 作者简介:石浩(1986-),河南濮阳人,博士研究生,主要从事碳循环模型研究。E-mail:shi@pku.edu.cn
  • 基金资助:

    国家科技部973计划(2010CB833503);国家自然科学基金项目(31070438);中国科学院战略先导专项子课题(XDA05050602-1);中国科学院青年人才项目(KZCX2-YW-QN301)

Application of the PnET-CN Model to Different Forest Ecosystems in East Asia

SHI Hao1,2, WANG Shao-qiang1, HUANG Kun1,2, ZHOU Lei1,2, WANG Hui-min1, HAN Shi-jie3, ZHOU Guo-yi4, OHTA Takeshi5, SAIGUSA Nobuko6, TAMAGAWA Ichiro7, HIRANO Takashi8   

  1. 1. Key Laboratory of Ecosystem Network Observation and Modeling, Institute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resources Research, CAS, Beijing 100101, China;
    2. University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, China;
    3. Institute of Applied Ecology, CAS, Shenyang 110016, China;
    4. South China Botanical Garden, CAS, Guangzhou 510650, China;
    5. Graduate School of Bioagricultural Sciences, Nagoya University, Chikusa-ku 4648601, Japan;
    6. Center for Global Environmental Research, National Institute for Environmental Studies, Tsukuba Ibaraki 3058506, Japan;
    7. River Basin Research Center, Gifu University, Gifu5011193, Japan;
    8. Graduate School of Agriculture, Hokkaido University, Sapporo 0608589, Japan
  • Received:2013-08-19 Revised:2013-11-23 Online:2014-09-20 Published:2014-09-20

摘要:

东亚地区森林类型多样,开展区域生态系统碳循环模拟时应考虑森林类型的差异。论文利用基于叶氮浓度-最大净光合作用速率关系的PnET-CN模型,对东亚地区8 个森林生态系统通量观测站点的总生态系统碳交换(GEE)和生态系统呼吸(RE)进行模拟,以探讨模型的适用性并对不确定性来源进行分析。研究结果表明:①PnET-CN模型能较为准确地模拟东亚地区大部分森林生态系统站点的GEERE;②模型的适用性排序依次为温带、寒温带、亚热带、 热带,模型未能很好地模拟热带湿地森林GEERE 的季节与年际变异;③在同一气候区中,PnET-CN模型更加适用于针叶林碳交换的模拟;④PnET-CN模型比较准确地反映了东亚森林生态系统GEERE对气候因子(例如,温度或辐射)的响应,但在低温、较弱辐射条件下模型低估了GEE,在高温或较强辐射条件下高估了GEE;在低温条件下模型低估了RE,在高温条件下模型高估了RE。针对东亚多个森林通量站点的模拟情况,论文提出模型应在以下方面进行改进:①PnET-CN模型计算物候时除了考虑温度之外还应加入土壤湿度的影响,并对不同气候区森林生态系统赋予不同叶片凋落时长;②PnET-CN模型中温度对GEE的限制以及光合最适温度应该根据不同站点设置;③PnET-CN模型应该考虑森林生态系统对环境胁迫的适应性,加强对干旱等干扰的模拟;④同时对于拥有复杂水文条件的森林生态系统应该改进土壤含水量的算法,以准确反映该类型森林生态系统GEERE的季节变化。

关键词: 碳氮耦合循环, PnET-CN模型, 叶氮浓度, 森林生态系统, 不确定性, 适用性

Abstract:

Great spatial diversity exists in forest ecosystems in East Asia, thus it is necessary totake the difference among forest biomes into account in regional carbon cycle modelling. Thisstudy applied an Amax–N% relationship based model, the PnET-CN model, to eight flux sites tocomprehensively evaluating its performance and uncertainty. The biomes at these eight sites includedeciduous needle-leaved forest, deciduous broad-leaved forest, evergreen needle-leavedforest and evergreen broad-leaved forest. The climate ranges from cold temperate to tropical.The PnET-CN model was applied to these eight sites to model the monthly carbon flux variation.The overall PnET-CN model performance was comprehensively evaluated using three indicators:correlation coefficient (r), root mean square error (RMSE) and standard error (SD). Resultsshowed that: 1) at monthly scale, the PnET-CN model could model the gross ecosystemexchange (GEE) and the ecosystem respiration (RE) quite well (GEE: 0.85 ≤r≤ 0.98; RE:0.51 ≤|r|≤ 0.98) except in a tropical swamp forest (GEE:r= 0.16; RE:r=-0.21); 2) butthe applicability in different climate regimes was not the same; it had the best performance intemperate zone, then cold temperate zone, subtropical zone and last tropical zone; 3) the PnETCNmodel could model needle leaved forests better than broad-leaved forests; and 4) the PnETCNmodel underestimated GEE at low temperature and low radiation and vice versa; the samephenomena occurred to RE responding to temperature. Finally, this study analysed reasons forthe gaps between simulated and observed data and gave suggestions on improving the model:1) effects of soil moisture should be accounted for in estimating phenology and the process ofleaf senescence should be assigned different values depending on the climate zone; 2) the regulationof temperature and the optimal temperature for photosynthesis should be set differentlyin different ecosystems; 3) it is necessary to take the resilience and adaptation capacity of forestecosystems into account in response to disturbance such as drought and high temperature; 4)the PnET-CN model should improve its bucket model to simulate the seasonal dynamics of carbonfluxes in forest ecosystems with complex hydrological conditions. Our results and conclusionsare helpful for understanding the spatial heterogeneity in forest ecosystem carbon cycle in East Asian region and for filling gaps between the modelling and observation.

Key words: foliar nitrogen content, forest ecosystems, uncertainty, coupled carbon-nitrogen cycle, applicability, PnET CN model

中图分类号: 

  • S718.5