自然资源学报 ›› 2014, Vol. 29 ›› Issue (8): 1356-1365.doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2014.08.008

• 资源评价 • 上一篇    下一篇

中国湖库洪水调蓄功能评价

饶恩明1,2, 肖燚1, 欧阳志云1   

  1. 1. 中国科学院生态环境研究中心城市与区域生态国家重点实验室, 北京 100085;
    2. 中国科学院大学, 北京 100049
  • 收稿日期:2013-10-28 修回日期:2013-12-17 出版日期:2014-08-20 发布日期:2014-08-20
  • 通讯作者: 肖燚 E-mail:xiaoyi@rcees.ac.cn E-mail:xiaoyi@rcees.ac.cn
  • 作者简介:饶恩明(1986-),女,重庆人,博士研究生,主要从事生态系统服务研究。E-mail:raoenming@163.com
  • 基金资助:

    国家林业公益性行业科研专项(201204201);国家科技支撑计划(2011BAC09B08-02)

Assessment of Flood Regulation Service of Lakes and Reservoirs in China

RAO En-ming1,2, XIAO Yi1, OUYANG Zhi-yun1   

  1. 1. State Key Laboratory of Urban and Regional Ecology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, CAS, Beijing 100085, China;
    2.University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, China
  • Received:2013-10-28 Revised:2013-12-17 Online:2014-08-20 Published:2014-08-20

摘要:

湖泊是抵御湖区水系洪水灾害的天然屏障,而水库是现代防洪工程体系的重要组成部分,两者共同肩负我国防洪减灾的重任。为探明我国湖、库洪水调蓄功能状况,分析区域防洪需求进而提出对策建议,论文以湖泊可调蓄水量和水库防洪库容为评价指标,基于可调蓄水量与湖面面积以及防洪库容与总库容的数量关系构建模型,分别对我国湖泊和水库的洪水调蓄能力进行了初步评估。结果表明,我国湖泊可调蓄水量和水库防洪库容分别为1 475.47×108和2 506.85×108 m3,湖库洪水调蓄功能总量为3 982.33×108 m3。从空间分布来看,湖泊调蓄能力以西藏、青海、江苏等省以及西北诸河、长江、淮河等流域较强;水库调蓄能力以湖北、广东、湖南等省以及长江、珠江、黄河等流域较强;湖库综合调蓄能力则以西藏、湖北、青海、江苏、湖南等省以及长江、西北诸河等流域较强。从防洪需求来看,珠江、长江、海河、淮河等流域湖库调蓄能力与设计洪量的比值较小,防洪压力较大。针对珠江流域和海河流域,建议通过兴建水库等工程建设提高流域防洪能力;针对长江流域和淮河流域,可结合退田还湖和水库建设提高湖库综合调洪能力。研究结果可为我国防洪建设和洪水管理提供科学指导。

关键词: 湖泊, 水库, 防洪需求, 洪水调蓄, 生态系统服务功能, 中国

Abstract:

Lakes are a natural buffer against flood disasters, and reservoirs are an important part of the modern flood control system. Scientific research on measuring flood regulation service of China's lakes and reservoirs and analyzing the regional demand for flood control is the basis of the country' s flood control and disater reduction. In this paper, we constructed primary flood regulation models for lakes and reservoirs based on the relationship between available storage capacity (ASP) and water area for lakes and between flood control storage capacity (FCSP) and total storage capacity for reservoirs, using ASP and FCSP as indicators, respectively. Next we evaluated the flood regulation service provided by China's lakes and reservoirs with the constructed models. The results showed that, the ASP of lakes and FCSP of reservoirs were 1475.47×108 m3 and 2506.85×108 m3, respectively, with a total of 3982.33×108 m3. In terms of the spatial distribution, the provinces of Tibet, Qinghai, Jiangsu as well as the basins of the northwest rivers, the Yangtze River, and the Huaihe River had a strong flood regulation capacity for lakes, while the provinces of Hubei, Guangdong, Hunan as well as the basins of the Yangtze River, the Pearl River, and the Yellow River had a strong flood regulation capacity for reservoirs. For the combination of lakes and reservoirs, the provinces of Tibet, Hubei, Qinghai, Jiangsu, Hunan as well as the basins of the Yangtze River and the northwest rivers had a strong flood regulation capacity. In terms of the demand for flood control, the basins of the Pearl River, the Yangtze River, the Haihe River and the Huaihe River faced high pressure of flood control. For the Pearl River Basin and the Haihe River Basin, the flood regulation capacity can be improved through structural measures like construction of reservoirs. For the Yangtze River Basin and the Huaihe River Basin, the comprehensive capacity of flood control can be strengthened with the combination of returning farmlands to lakes and constructing reservoirs. The results of this study can provide a scientific guidance for the flood control construction and flood management in China.

Key words: flood regulation, lake, China, ecosystem services, reservoir, demand for flood control

中图分类号: 

  • X171