自然资源学报 ›› 2014, Vol. 29 ›› Issue (8): 1345-1355.doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2014.08.007

• 资源生态 • 上一篇    下一篇

水位对鄱阳湖湿地越冬候鸟生境景观格局的影响研究

齐述华1,2, 张起明1,2,3, 江丰1,2, 廖富强1,2   

  1. 1. 江西师范大学鄱阳湖湿地与流域教育部重点实验室, 南昌 330022;
    2. 江西师范大学地理与环境学院, 南昌 330022;
    3. 江西省环境监测中心站, 南昌 330029
  • 收稿日期:2013-07-18 修回日期:2013-12-12 出版日期:2014-08-20 发布日期:2014-08-20
  • 作者简介:齐述华(1973-),男,江西婺源人,博士,教授,主要从事生态环境遥感应用。E-mail:qishuhua11@163.com
  • 基金资助:
    国家自然科学基金项目(40261069,40801169);鄱阳湖湿地与流域研究教育部重点实验室开放基金项目(TK2013001);江西省重大生态安全问题监控协同创新中心资助项目(JXS-EW-00);国际鹤类基金会小额基金项目

Study on the Effects on the Landscape Spatial Pattern of the Wintering Birds’Habitat from Lake Level in Poyang LakeWetland

QI Shu-huaa1,2, ZHANG Qi-mingb1,2,3, JIANG Fengb1,2, LIAO Fu-qiangb1,2   

  1. 1. Key Laboratory of Poyang LakeWetland andWatershed Research, Ministry of Education, Nanchang 330022, China;
    2. School of Geography and Environment, Jiangxi Normal University, Nanchang 330022, China;
    3. Jiangxi Environmental Monitoring Center, Nanchang 330039, China
  • Received:2013-07-18 Revised:2013-12-12 Online:2014-08-20 Published:2014-08-20

摘要: 鄱阳湖湿地是国际重要湿地之一,是世界上最富有生物多样性的生态系统之一,也是东亚地区最大的水禽越冬地。论文根据多年越冬候鸟野外调查资料,在分析主要越冬候鸟习性和生境偏好的基础上,通过对具有不同水位的鄱阳湖湿地卫星遥感影像进行生境类型分类,利用景观指数定量分析不同水位下鄱阳湖湿地越冬候鸟的生境类型和空间分布结构,得到以下结论:①鄱阳湖主要越冬候鸟以退水后形成的浅碟形子湖范围内的浅水、草滩和软泥为主要取食、休憩和栖息场所;②水位是影响鄱阳湖湿地越冬候鸟生境的主要因素,随水位的增加,越冬候鸟生境范围萎缩,同时越冬候鸟生境的组成结构也不同;③随水位的增加,越冬候鸟生境景观的破碎度增加,连通性和多样性降低,因此,秋冬季维持较高水位不利于越冬候鸟的保护。

Abstract: Wetlands are important environments that serve as irreplaceable habitat for numerous wildlife species by providing them breeding and resting. Millions of migratory birds, including endangered Siberian Crane, migrate to the Poyang Lake wetland at the end of autumn and the beginning of winter every year when the lake level is low and the grassland is emerged. The Poyang Lake natural wetland with an area of 3306 km2 is one of the most important international wetland and it also is the largest habitat for wintering birds in East Asia. In this research, the data from field survey on wintering birds around Poyang Lake wetland was used to define the habitat landscape for the wintering wild birds. Then 11 remotely sensed images at different lake levels were used to outline the habitat distribution by combining unsupervised classification with visual interpretation. The landscape spatial patterns of the wintering birds' habitat were analyzed with landscape metrics such as patches area (PA), mean patch area index (MPAI), largest patch index (%) (LPI), area-weighted mean shape index (AWMSI), perimeter area fractal dimension index (PAFRAC) and contagion index (CONT). And we conclude that: 1) the wintering migrant birds in Poyang Lake are always forage or rest in the shallow and still water, flat mud and wetland vegetation. 2) Habitat for migrant wild birds was affected by the lake level apparently. With water level in Poyang Lake increasing from 5 m to 15.6 m, the area of habitat for migrant wild birds will decrease from about 2300 km2 to 530 km2 gradually. And lake level can also exert significant influence on the composition of habitat types for winter migrant water- birds. But it doesn' t mean that the frequently happened drought in the Poyang Lake wetland in recent years will benefit to the wintering wild birds in Poyang Lake wetland. In fact, the changed hydrological characteristics (drought happened frequently in autumn or winter) had been causing the hygrophytes community succession with terrestrial plant in Poyang Lake wetland. 3) With lake level in Poyang Lake increasing from 5 m to 15.6 m, the landscape fragmentation will be increasing and connectivity will be decreasing that means maintaining a higher lake level will be unfavorable for the protection of winter migrant wild birds.

中图分类号: 

  • P333