自然资源学报 ›› 2014, Vol. 29 ›› Issue (7): 1091-1104.doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2014.07.001

• 资源生态 •    下一篇

中国生态补偿的省域差异及影响因素分析

刘春腊1,2,3, 刘卫东1   

  1. 1. 中国科学院地理科学与资源研究所, 中国科学院区域可持续发展分析与模拟重点实验室, 北京100101;
    2. 中国科学院大学, 北京100049;
    3. 湖南省人居环境学研究基地, 湖南衡阳421002
  • 收稿日期:2013-04-27 修回日期:2013-09-21 出版日期:2014-07-20 发布日期:2014-07-20
  • 通讯作者: 刘卫东(1967-),男,河北隆化人,研究员,主要从事经济地理和区域发展研究。E-mail:liuwd@igsnrr.ac.cn E-mail:liuwd@igsnrr.ac.cn
  • 作者简介:刘春腊(1985-),男,湖南衡阳人,博士研究生,主要从事经济地理与区域发展研究。E-mail:liuchunla111@163.com
  • 基金资助:

    国家自然科学基金项目(41125005);湖南省人居环境学研究基地开放基金。

Study on the Provincial Difference and Influential Factors of Eco-Compensation in China

LIU Chun-la1,2,3, LIU Wei-dong1   

  1. 1. Key Laboratory of Regional Sustainable Development Modeling, Institute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resources Research, CAS, Beijing 100101, China;
    2. University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, China;
    3. Hunan Provincial Key Research Base of Social Sciences for Human Settlements, Hengyang 421002, China
  • Received:2013-04-27 Revised:2013-09-21 Online:2014-07-20 Published:2014-07-20

摘要:

由于中国区域发展水平、生态资源本底等诸多因素的差异性,致使生态补偿实践工作也存在一定的地域差异。生态补偿的补偿类型、利益主体(谁补偿、补给谁)、补偿形式、补偿标准(补多少)及补偿方式与渠道等是其理论研究与实践工作的核心。中国生态补偿实践格局存在省域差异,在补偿类型上,涉及综合型、森林生态补偿、湿地生态补偿、垃圾处理生态补偿、流域生态补偿等各个方面,且省级差异较大;在补偿形式上,中央政府通过财政转移支付实施的生态补偿和省域政府对生态保护者的补偿是中国各省域生态补偿利益关系的两种主要形式;在补偿标准上,经济发展水平较高的北京、广东等省的补偿水平相对较高,而新疆、西藏、甘肃、贵州等经济相对落后地区的生态补偿标准较低;在补偿方式与渠道上,财政转移支付在各省普遍采用,赔偿金、资源价值费、资源税在各省得到不同程度的运用;在补偿利益主体上,“中央政府-地方政府、地方政府-农户”的生态补偿利益格局在全国各省均有,“企业-农户、企业-地方政府”作为补充。之所以在不同省域之间会存在生态补偿的差异性,这与国家的政策方针导向、面临的生态环境问题、生态资源禀赋及地域分布、生态环境保护的积极性、社会经济发展水平、公众对生态资源价值的认识、区域地理环境特征等因素密切相关。对于中国生态补偿的省域差异,既要认识到其存在的客观性,同时需要从政策、管理、公众参与等多方面采取措施加以管控与协调。

关键词: 省域差异, 中国, 生态补偿

Abstract:

Owing to the differences in China's regional development level, ecological resources situation, etc, so the eco-compensation practical work also has certain regional difference. Eco-compensation's compensation types, benefit bodies (who compensate, compensate to whom), compensation standard (how much should be compensated), compensation form, compensation way and channel are the keys issues for eco-compensation research and practice work. There are great provincial differences in eco-compensation's practice situation in China. 1) In the aspect of eco-compensation types, involving synthesizing eco-compensation, forest eco-compensation, wetland eco-compensation, garbage disposal eco-compensation, watershed eco-compensation and other types, great provincial differences also exist. 2) In the aspect of eco-compensation standard, Beijing, Guangdong and other wealthy provinces had relative high eco-compensation standard, while Xinjiang, Tibet, Gansu, Guizhou and other poor provinces had relative low standard. 3) In the aspect of eco-compensation way and channel, transfer payment from the exchequer was mainly adopted, compensation fee, resource value fee and resource tax, were applied more or less in some provinces. 4) In the aspect of eco-compensation form, central government's transfer payment from the exchequer and provincial government's compensation for eco-protector, are the two main ways. 5) In the aspect of benefit bodies,"central government-local government, local government-peasant household"are the main bodies, which existed in every province, and the bodies of"enterprise-local government, enterprisepeasant household"are the supplement. The provincial differences of eco-compensation in China were closely related to national policy, eco-environment situation, eco-resource endowment and geographical distribution, eco-environmental protection enthusiasm, social and economic development level, public's understanding on eco-resource value, regional geographical environment and etc. With regard to the provincial difference of eco-compensation in China, we should not only realize the objectivity of its subsistent, but also take steps to control and concert.

Key words: provincial difference, China, eco-compensation

中图分类号: 

  • X321