自然资源学报 ›› 2014, Vol. 29 ›› Issue (4): 719-725.doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2014.04.016

• 资源研究方法 • 上一篇    下一篇

城市再生水的自主定价问题及定价方法研究

段涛   

  1. 河南工业大学管理学院, 郑州450001
  • 收稿日期:2012-12-20 修回日期:2013-07-17 出版日期:2014-04-20 发布日期:2014-04-20
  • 作者简介:段涛(1979-),男,河南南阳人,讲师,博士,主要研究环境与资源经济学。E-mail:duant@126.com
  • 基金资助:

    国家社会科学基金青年项目(09CJY002)。

Study on the Independent Pricing Problem and Method of Urban Recycled Water

DUAN Tao   

  1. School of Management, Henan University of Technology, Zhengzhou 450001, China
  • Received:2012-12-20 Revised:2013-07-17 Online:2014-04-20 Published:2014-04-20
  • About author:10.11849/zrzyxb.2014.04.016

摘要:

分析了现有再生水定价理论方法存在的缺陷,总结了我国城市再生水回用现状及定价实践中存在的随意定价和盲目定价问题,通过考虑再生水作为自来水替代品以及无需垄断管制的特点,提出了再生水可由生产企业自主定价的论点,建立了基于成本与需求综合考虑的再生水自主定价模型,提出了具有可操作性的定价方法。首先建立用户使用再生水的充要条件假设,确定用户对再生水的保留价格公式,然后分别计算在各种水价下对用户供水的收入和成本,再求得供水总利润最大时的再生水价格,该价格即为再生水自主定价时的最优价格。通过具体算例,对上述定价方法进行了演示说明。最后,总结了再生水自主定价的现实意义及实施自主定价的支持条件。

关键词: 定价理论, 供水成本, 再生水价格, 自主定价

Abstract:

Utilization of urban recycled water is an effective approach to alleviate the crisis of water resource scarcity in China. However, the utilization rate of China's recycled water is very low, partly due to the unreasonable water price. In this paper, the defects of recycled water pricing theories are analyzed. The traditional pricing theories are mainly transplanted from pricing theories of quasi public products, based on cost accounting. They ignore the important factor of demand and can't rationalize the relationship between tap water prices and recycled water prices. Moreover, the current situation of China's urban recycled water utilization is summarized and the blindly and arbitrarily problem of urban recycled water pricing is analyzed. In this paper,the viewpoint that recycled water can be independently priced by suppliers is presented, according to the features of recycled water including alternative of tap water and dispensability of monopoly regulation. Some hypotheses are put forward including indifference of water quality, permanence of specific investment and necessary and sufficient condition of recycled water acceptance. A theoretical model of independent recycled water pricing is built, based on comprehensive consideration of cost and demand. The workable pricing method is given as well. Firstly, the formula of consumers'reserve price is deduced based on the hypothesis about the necessary and sufficient condition that recycled water will be used by consumers. Afterward, the current price of tap water was given by taking a price of recycled water and calculating the total profit of water supply. The price which can maximize the total supplying profits can be found by multiple calculations of the supplying revenue and cost under each given price of recycled water. This price is regarded as the optimal price under independent pricing. In consideration of the pricing practice of tap water, the prices of recycled water should be set according to the different categories of users. For illustrative purposes, the pricing method is illustrated with a virtual example. Finally, the practical significances and implementing conditions of recycled water pricing are summarized. The implementation of the independent pricing models and method requires some support conditions. Firstly, recycled water can be generally accepted by users. It needs to break down the psychological resistance of recycled water under the guidance of government and media. Secondly, the supplying profit of main users should be greater than zero through government subsidies. Therefore, the range of application is relatively limited. It needs to be piloted in a few cities at first and popularized afterward.

Key words: recycled water price, pricing theory, independent pricing, water supplying cost

中图分类号: 

  • F062.1