自然资源学报 ›› 2014, Vol. 29 ›› Issue (3): 528-539.doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2014.03.016

• 资源研究方法 • 上一篇    下一篇

SWAT模型融雪模块的改进与应用研究

孟现勇1,5, 吉晓楠3, 刘志辉1,2,4, 5, 肖军仓5, 陈曦7   

  1. 1. 新疆大学资源与环境科学学院, 乌鲁木齐830046;
    2. 新疆大学 绿洲生态教育部重点实验室, 乌鲁木齐830046;
    3. 四川大学建筑与环境学院, 成都610207;
    4. 新疆大学干旱生态环境研究所, 乌鲁木齐830046;
    5. 中国科学院新疆生态与地理研究所, 乌鲁木齐830011;
    6. 河南省环境保护科学研究院, 郑州450004;
    7. 呼图壁县水利局, 新疆呼图壁831200
  • 收稿日期:2012-12-01 修回日期:2013-07-17 出版日期:2014-03-20 发布日期:2014-03-20
  • 通讯作者: 刘志辉(1957-),男(汉族),新疆石河子人,博士,教授,主要从事“3S”技术应用等研究。E-mail:lzh@xju.edu.cn E-mail:lzh@xju.edu.cn
  • 作者简介:孟现勇(1987-),男(汉族),宁夏银川人,博士研究生,主要从事水文水资源、3S集成与系统开发研究。E-mail:mxy0001@gmail.com
  • 基金资助:

    水利部公益性行业科研专项经费项目(201301103);国家自然科学基金项目“‘3S’技术支持下的融雪洪水预警决策支持系统研究”(70361001);中国沙漠气象科学研究基金“积雪遥感与融雪洪水监测预测研究”(Sqj2007004);国家自然科学基金项目“基于干旱区流域融雪径流形成过程与机制的大气水文模式耦合研究”(40871023)。

Research on Improvement and Application of Snowmelt Module in SWAT

MENG Xian-yong1,5, JI Xiao-nan3, LIU Zhi-huib1,2,4, XIAO Jun-cang5, CHEN Xi5, WANG Fang7   

  1. 1. School of Resources and Environment Science, Xinjiang University, Urumqi 830046, China;
    2. Key Laboratory of Oasis Ecology Ministry of Education, Xinjiang University, Urumqi 830046, China;
    3. College of Architecture and Environment, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610207, China;
    4. Institute of Arid Ecology and Environment, Xinjiang University, Urumqi 830046, China;
    5. Xinjiang Institute of Ecology and Geography, CAS, Urumqi 830011, China;
    6. Henan Academy of Environmental Protection Research, Zhengzhou 450004, China;
    7. Wall County Water District, Hutubi 831200, China
  • Received:2012-12-01 Revised:2013-07-17 Online:2014-03-20 Published:2014-03-20
  • About author:3

摘要:

融雪是水文过程的重要影响因素,为了对天山北坡气候极端高寒地区进行长期洪水预报预警,该研究以SWAT (土壤和水评估工具)模型为基本框架对其融雪模块进行修改,将基于物理过程的分布式融雪径流模型耦合入SWAT模型,并基于高程带对改进前后的模型进行了对比验证。通过对新疆天山北坡军塘湖河流域进行模拟、参数率定与验证后发现,原SWAT 模型在参数率定期间(2000 年1 月1 日至2004 年12 月31 日)的Nash-Stucliffe 效率系数(NSE)略低于基于物理过程的模型SWAT-JTH,但在验证期(2006 年1 月1 日至2010 年12 月31 日),SWAT原模型NSE高于改进后的SWAT-JTH 模型。两种方法模拟效果均可以满足实际融雪模拟精度的需求。研究发现,温度因子方法(SWAT融雪模块)虽较基于物理过程的模型结构更简单,但在合理率定参数后却可以得到较好的效果。虽然现今观测和实验手段还不能满足物理过程模型精度要求,以及物理模型本身的错误叠加现象对目前的研究带来了诸多不确定性,但由于物理模型对于极端条件下的模拟及物理过程的模拟具有很大优势,未来随数据精度的提高,将继续深入该物理模型的改进研究。该研究将对高寒山区分布式融雪径流预报预警的发展起到一定的促进作用。

关键词: 融雪模型, 能量平衡, 物理过程, 水量平衡, SWAT

Abstract:

Snowmelt process is an important part in hydrological analyses. Many hydrology models have interduced snowmelt model in order to simulate the snowmelt processes in the catchment ranging from simple temperature-index method to sophisticated process-based model. In this paper, we make a comparison of the two approaches to identify the performances of temperature-index and process-based snowmelt approaches which coupled with the SWAT model in Juntanghu watershed of northern slope of Tianshan Mountains, Xinjiang, China. The result indicates insignificant differences between the temperature-index methods and physically energy budget based snowmelt approaches. The simulation performance from the original SWAT model in calibration period (2000-01-01-2004-12-31) was worse than that from the developed SWAT-JTH model; in validation period (2006-01-01-2010-12-31), the original SWAT model provided a better performance than the SWAT-JTH model. The simulation results are acceptable for snowmelt runoff simulation for both models. Through comparison, the structure of temperature-index method is simple and can achieve good simulation performance if the model is well calibrated. Although it is hard to meet the data requirement of the physically-based model in current observation and experiment approaches and some uncertainties associated with physical processes, there are some advantages for the physically-based model which can simulate the extreme weather conditions. In this study, the physically-based distributed snowmelt runoff model was developed and has a promising future.

Key words: energy balance, physical process, SWAT, snowmelt model, hydrologic budget

中图分类号: 

  • P333.9