自然资源学报 ›› 2012, Vol. ›› Issue (7): 1089-1100.doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2012.07.002

• 资源利用与管理 • 上一篇    下一篇

西部山区坡地村落空间演进与农户生计改变

王传胜1,2, 朱珊珊1,2,3, 孙贵艳1,2,3, 樊杰1,2   

  1. 1. 中国科学院 区域可持续发展分析与模拟重点实验室, 北京 100101;
    2. 中国科学院 地理科学与资源研究所, 北京 100101;
    3. 中国科学院 研究生院, 北京 100049
  • 收稿日期:2011-09-23 修回日期:2012-01-05 出版日期:2012-07-20 发布日期:2012-07-20
  • 通讯作者: 樊杰(1961- ),男,陕西西安人,博士生导师,研究员,主要从事中国区域发展问题研究。E-mail:fanj@igsnrr.ac.cn E-mail:fanj@igsnrr.ac.cn
  • 基金资助:

    国家自然科学基金(40771057,41171109);国家自然科学重点基金(40830741)。

The Spatial Evolution of Slope Villages and Their Peasant Household Livelihood Change in the Mountainous Area of Western China

WANG Chuan-sheng1,2, ZHU Shan-shan1,2,3, SUN Gui-yan1,2,3, FAN Jie1,2   

  1. 1. Key Laboratory of Regional Sustainable Development Modeling, CAS, Beijing 100101, China;
    2. Institute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resources Research, CAS, Beijing 100101, China;
    3. Graduate University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, China
  • Received:2011-09-23 Revised:2012-01-05 Online:2012-07-20 Published:2012-07-20

摘要: 坡地村落是指分布在山地、丘陵坡面上的村庄,广泛分布于我国的山区聚落中,是我国乡村聚落的重要类型。西部山区是坡地村落分布的主要地区,"十二五"期间随着主体功能区规划的实施,不仅会影响坡地村落的空间重组和人口迁移,也会影响到坡地村落的农户生计和山区区域发展问题。论文以坡地村落空间演进和农户流动为切入口,借助黄土高原和西南山地典型地区的分析,运用GIS和大比例尺地形图分析了坡地村落空间集中和分散的基本特征。通过实地考察和问卷分析,剖析了村落空间演进和人口流动过程中农户耕地资产、收入、基本生活方式等主要生计的改变。结论认为,以减缓生态环境压力、调和人地矛盾和扭转经济贫困为最初目标的人口迁移,总体来说,有着显著的正效应,主要表现在退耕使生态用地比重得到提高、劳动力收入渠道拓宽、基础设施和社会公共服务得到显著改善等方面。

关键词: 西部山区, 坡地村落, 农户生计

Abstract: Slopes villages refer to villages locating on the slopes of mountains and hills, which are distributed extensively in mountain settlements and constitute an important type of the village settlements in China. The western mountainous areas, which are the main slope village distributed areas, have faced the resources and ecology bottleneck because the long time population growth pressure have made them in recent years the main areas of population movement, and frequent village migrations. With "the Main Function of the National Planning" implemented in the "Twelfth Five-Year Plan on National Economic and Social Development" period, the above regions will be faced the new opportunities and challenges. The spatial reorganization and the population migration in the slope village distributed mountainous areas will be also influenced. And finally the rural household livelihood and sustainable development in mountainous area will be affected. These two problems have exactly long puzzled the western rural development. Accessing the villages space evolution and the peasant households, using the multi-time remote sensing images (TM, ETM, and Alos at 2.5 m resolution) and topographic maps of different scales (1:50000, 1:100000 and 1:250000), the disperse and concentrate characteristics of the two spatial evolutions types of the slope villages were analyzed by using the GIS spatial analysis tools. The concentration is the slope village households’movements from the slope lands down to the smooth lands under the environmental pressure and driven by most of the benefits. One concentration type is its position located on some bigger river valley plains and some main roads are caused by the spatial difference of the slope village’site conditions. Another nearby bigger markets and the advantageous traffic accesses are caused due to infrastructure reconstruction and market mechanism establishment in western mountainous areas. The dispersion is the slope village households’movements up to hills and developing hill slopes for seeking new lands owing to the population pressure. The main reasons for the slope village’s dispersion are the complex terrain, the limited land, the self-sufficient production pattern and the traditional life style of peasants. The rural household questionnaires were prepared in Guyuan and Zhaotong as typical area respectively in the Loess Plateau hilly area and the southwestern mountainous area. The rural livelihoods including the farmlands property, the incomes and the main life style and their changes in the process of the village space evolution and the movement of population are analyzed. The conclusion believed that the spatial concentration and the completely moving out of the slope villages are beneficial to the mountainous area development. The spatial concentration of the slope villages may reduce pressures of resources and environment, enrich livelihood property of the rural households, enhance the income of the indigenous inhabitant, and, by advancing life types of the peasants, build a harmonious developing way between human and environment. However, from another angle, the lower bearing capacity of population and economic activities in the mountainous area limits the slope village’s expansion in scale. And more, owing to lack of the outer communication, the decentralization also may be the normal process of the slope villages’spatial evolution in mountainous area. At that time, the moderate scale household properties, the diversifying household livelihoods, the comfortable living environment, the slope villages’spatial system coordinated with environment, which should be concerned on sustainable development in the mountainous area.

Key words: the western mountainous area of China, the slope villages, peasant household livelihood

中图分类号: 

  • K901.8