自然资源学报 ›› 2012, Vol. ›› Issue (5): 866-875.doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2012.05.015

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SWAT模型降水输入参数的改进研究

宁吉才1,2, 刘高焕1, 叶宇1, 刘庆生1, 谢传节1   

  1. 1. 中国科学院 地理科学与资源研究所, 北京 100101;
    2. 山东财经大学 公共管理学院, 济南 250014
  • 收稿日期:2011-02-12 修回日期:2011-08-31 出版日期:2012-05-20 发布日期:2012-05-20
  • 基金资助:
    国家水体污染控制与治理科技重大专项(2008ZX07526-007)。

Study on Precipitation Parameters Input of SWAT Model

NING Ji-cai1,2, LIU Gao-huan1, YE Yu1, LIU Qing-sheng1, XIE Chuan-jie1   

  1. 1. Institute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resources Research, CAS, Beijing 100101, China;
    2. School of Public Management, Shandong University of Finance and Economics, Ji’nan 250014, China
  • Received:2011-02-12 Revised:2011-08-31 Online:2012-05-20 Published:2012-05-20

摘要: 水文模型的运行和模拟精度,很大程度上依赖于输入参数的质量。论文通过不同途径获取的降水数据作为SWAT模型的输入参数,比较分析模型模拟精度。研究发现通常SWAT模型在模拟过程中选择的降水站点是固定的,如果某些年份缺失数据则会调用天气发生器,天气发生器基本可以满足SWAT模拟的需要,可以取得比较满意的结果。利用空间插值为缺乏降水观测的子流域提供降水输入参数,一定程度上提高了SWAT的模拟精度。不过在某些降水过程时空变率较大的情况下,空间插值的降水量往往偏低,导致SWAT模型对洪峰的模拟效果不好。

关键词: SWAT模型, GIS, 空间插值, 天气发生器

Abstract: The operation and simulation accuracy of hydrological model mainly depends on the quality of input parameters. The precipitation parameters of SWAT model input were acquired through different approaches. To evaluate the data inputs, this article compared the accuracy of model simulations. It was found in SWAT model that the choice of precipitation site is generally fixed during one simulation, and the model will use the weather generator to fill in gaps in measured records. The weather generator functioned inaccurately on extreme weather conditions, which leads to precipitation input error. The SWAT model simulation was suitable for the years with less variable rate of precipitation and operated imprecisely in heavy rains events. The changing range of precipitation should be evaluated before the simulation. On regions of lacking precipitation observations the spatial interpolation method can serve as a good tool to produce data needed by SWAT model. The using of GIS tools will promote the development of hydrological model.

Key words: SWAT model, GIS, spatial interpolation, weather generator

中图分类号: 

  • P333.9