自然资源学报 ›› 2012, Vol. ›› Issue (5): 747-756.doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2012.05.004

• 资源利用与管理 • 上一篇    下一篇

荒漠绿洲调亏灌溉条件下辣椒耗水规律研究

黄海霞, 韩国君, 陈年来, 黄得志, 张正, 张凯   

  1. 甘肃省干旱生境作物学重点实验室, 甘肃农业大学, 兰州 730070
  • 收稿日期:2010-06-18 修回日期:2011-07-01 出版日期:2012-05-20 发布日期:2012-05-20
  • 通讯作者: 陈年来(1962- ),男,甘肃民勤人,博士,教授,主要从事植物生态学研究。E-mail:chennl@gsau.edu.cn E-mail:chennl@gsau.edu.cn
  • 基金资助:
    国家科技支撑项目(2007BAD881307);甘肃农业大学科技创新基金项目(GAU-CX1019)。

Water Consumption Pattern of Capsicum annuum under Regulated Deficit Irrigation in Desert Oasis

HUANG Hai-xia, HAN Guo-jun, CHEN Nian-lai, HUNAG De-zhi, ZHANG Zheng, ZHANG Kai   

  1. Gansu Provincial Key Lab of Aridland Crop Science, Gansu Agricultural University, Lanzhou 730070, China
  • Received:2010-06-18 Revised:2011-07-01 Online:2012-05-20 Published:2012-05-20

摘要: 以陇椒2号和美国红为试验材料,在民勤荒漠绿洲大田条件下研究了辣椒的耗水规律、产量、水分利用效率和生物量对调亏灌溉的响应。结果表明,辣椒耗水量与灌水量显著正相关,制干专用品种美国红的耗水量(434.63 mm)显著小于鲜食品种陇椒2号(482.10 mm)。两品种耗水强度均表现为结果盛期>定植—坐果期>结果末期,美国红3个时期各处理的平均耗水强度分别为4.30、3.89、2.82 mm/d,陇椒2号分别为4.85、4.03、3.57 mm/d。耗水模数表现为结果盛期>定植—坐果期>结果末期(结果盛期调亏处理除外),充分灌水条件下,两品种耗水模数相当,3个生育期分别约为46%、40%、14%,各生育期进行调亏灌溉均会显著降低其耗水强度和耗水模数,结果盛期最为明显。产量和生物量对结果盛期中度和重度调亏灌溉最为敏感,其次为定植—坐果期重度调亏,美国红产量分别较对照降低25.24%、40.71%、14.17%,单株生物量分别降低7.43、14.18、21.38 g;陇椒2号产量分别降低22.93%、32.37%、16.77%,生物量分别降低9.15、15.87、23.34 g。定植—坐果期中度调亏对产量和生物量的影响均不显著,产量水分利用效率分别增加0.51 kg·m-3和0.40 kg·m-3,因此,在定植—坐果期进行中度调亏灌溉(土壤相对含水量为55%~65% θf, θf指田间持水量),其他生育期充分灌水(土壤相对含水量为75%~85% θf),可以实现节水高效。

关键词: 民勤荒漠绿洲, 辣椒, 耗水规律, 生物量, 水分利用效率

Abstract: A field experiment was conducted to analyze the response of water consumption, yield, water use efficiency and biomass to regulated deficit irrigation taking Capsicum annuum L. cv. Lonjiao 2 and Meiguohong as the materials under field condition in Minqin desert-oasis. The results showed that water consumption was positively correlated to irrigation amount, and water consumption of Meiguohong (434.63 mm )was significantly lower than that of Longjiao 2(482.10 mm). Water consumption rate showed as vigorous period>planting-fruit setting period>telophase, the average water consumption rate of the three stages for Meiguohong was 4.30 mm/d, 3.89 mm/d, 2.82 mm/d and Longjiao 2 was 4.85 mm/d, 4.03 mm/d and 3.57 mm/d, respectively. Water consumption moduls displayed the same tendency(except for regulated-deficit-irrigation treatments at vigorous period)to that of water consumption rate, the two cultivars had appoximately the same moduls under full irrigation with 46%, 40%, 14% at the three period, respectively. Regulated deficit irrigation at each stage significantly decreased water consumption rate and modulus of Capsicum annuum especially evident at vigorous period. Yield and biomass were most sensitive to moderate and severe regulated deficit irrigation at vigorous period followed by severe deficit irrigation at planting-fruiting stage,compared with control yield of Meiguohong decreased 25.24%, 40.71%, 14.17%, individual biomass decreased 7.43 g, 14.18 g, 21.38 g, yield of Longjiao 2 reduced 22.93%, 32.37%, 16.77% and the biomass decreased 9.15 g, 15.87 g, 23.34 g. Moderate regulated deficit irrigation at planting-fruiting stage had no significant effect on yield and biomass and enhanced water use efficiency 0.51 kg/m3and 0.40 kg/m3 for Meiguohong and Longjiao 2, thus moderate regulated deficit irrigated at planting-fruiting stage(keeping soil relative water content at 55%-65% of field capacity), full irrigation at vigorous period and telophase(keeping soil relative water content at 75%-85% of field capacity) can attain the goal of water-saving and high efficiency.

Key words: Minqin desert-oasis, Capsicum annuum, water consumption pattern, biomass, water use efficiency

中图分类号: 

  • S641.3