自然资源学报 ›› 2012, Vol. 27 ›› Issue (4): 614-624.doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2012.04.008

• 资源生态 • 上一篇    下一篇

基于生态足迹的中国生态承载力供需平衡分析

刘东, 封志明, 杨艳昭   

  1. 中国科学院 地理科学与资源研究所, 北京 100101
  • 收稿日期:2011-07-21 修回日期:2011-11-04 出版日期:2012-04-20 发布日期:2012-04-20
  • 通讯作者: 封志明(1963-),男,河北平山人,研究员,中国自然资源学会会员(S300000026M),博导,主要从事国土资源优化配置与区域可持续发展综合研究,旁及资源科学理论探讨。E-mail: fengzm@igsnrr.ac.cn E-mail:fengzm@igsnrr.ac.cn
  • 作者简介:刘东(1982-),男,山东泰安人,博士,研究方向为资源开发与区域发展。E-mail: lldking2008@yahoo.com.cn
  • 基金资助:

    国家自然科学青年基金(41101553);国家人口计生委流动人口司研究项目(2010-11)。

Ecological Balance between Supply and Demand in China Using Ecological Footprint Method

LIU Dong, FENG Zhi-ming, YANG Yan-zhao   

  1. Institute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resources Research, CAS, Beijing 100101, China
  • Received:2011-07-21 Revised:2011-11-04 Online:2012-04-20 Published:2012-04-20

摘要: 以生态承载力供需关系为切入点,应用生态足迹模型,构建生态承载力供需平衡指数(ECCI),以分县为基本单元,系统评价了我国县域尺度生态承载力供需平衡状况。结果表明:①中国生态承载力供需平衡以生态赤字区为主,生态盈余区和生态平衡区为辅。不足1/5的人口分布在约2/3表现为生态平衡或盈余的国土面积上,而4/5的人口集中分布在不足1/3表现为生态赤字的国土面积上;②中国分县生态承载力空间分布呈较明显的不平衡性,大体由东南到西北呈现从严重超载到富富有余的分布态势。中国生态承载力供需已严重失衡,且人口密度大、 流动人口迁入较为集中的沿海城市地区表现尤为突出。随着城市化进程的不断加快,这些地区空间生态不平衡性将更加严重,生态环境问题需引起足够关注。从流域关系来看,应妥善处理上中下游间的关系,把对生态环境的影响以及生态环境的保护摆在重要位置。研究结果可为国家主体功能区规划、 人口发展功能区划提供科学依据和决策支持。

关键词: 生态足迹, 生态承载力, 供需平衡, GIS, 中国

Abstract: A balanced ecological carrying capacity is important to achieve sustainable development for human enterprise. Experiencing fast population growth and increasing pressure on natural resources and environment, China's ecological balance between supply and demand has been widely debated. In this study the "Ecological Footprint" method was used to analyze the supply-demand balance of China's ecological carrying capacity. Firstly, the ecological supply and demand balance was calculated and evaluated, and secondly, the ecological carrying capacity index (ECCI) was derived. The ECCI was calculated for each county of China in 2007 and systematically evaluated towards its supply-demand balance, so as to bring some scientific references and policy-making supports to the population spatial distribution planning, main function zone and ecological security regionalization of China. The results showed that: 1) Ecological deficit appeared to be the main characteristic of the supply-demand balance of the ecological carrying capacity at county level, referring to 1436 counties and a population of 1052.8×106, accounting for 62% and 81% of the whole country respectively. Ecological surplus accounted for the largest share of 62% of the total area; the ecological deficit area and ecological equilibrium area accounted for 32% and 6% respectively. In general, more than 4/5 of the Chinese population was concentrated in less than 1/3 of the land area and more than 2/3 of the land area was inhabited by less than 1/5 of the population. 2) China's ecological carrying capacity demand-supply balance ranged from significant overloading to affluence from southeastern to northwestern China. And what's more, it appeared to be more dominant in regions located at coastal areas which are attracted by migrants and had a generally higher population density. Along with the rapid development and urbanization trends in China, ecological deficits in these regions will become more severe. As a result,environmental problems should be paid sufficient attentions in order to keep ecology secure in these regions.

Key words: ecological footprint, ecological carrying capacity, supply-demand balance, GIS, China

中图分类号: 

  • F062.2