自然资源学报 ›› 2012, Vol. 27 ›› Issue (2): 344-352.doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2012.02.017

• 专题论坛 • 上一篇    

生物液体燃料发展的环境影响研究进展

杨海龙1,2, 吕耀1, 封志明1, 王露1,2   

  1. 1. 中国科学院 地理科学与资源研究所,北京 100101;
    2. 中国科学院 研究生院,北京 100049
  • 收稿日期:2011-03-08 修回日期:2011-08-18 出版日期:2012-02-20 发布日期:2012-02-20
  • 通讯作者: 封志明 E-mail:fengzm@igsnrr.ac.cn
  • 作者简介:杨海龙(1980- ),男,河北平山人,博士研究生,主要从事能源资源与环境管理研究。E-mail: yanghailong2006@163. com
  • 基金资助:

    国家自然科学基金项目(40971270)"我国能源植物种植的环境效应研究"。

Research Progress of Biofuel on Environmental Impact

YANG Hai-long1,2, LÜ Yao1, FENG Zhi-ming1, WANG Lu1,2   

  1. 1. Institute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resources Research, CAS, Beijing 100101, China;
    2. Graduate University of Chinese Academy Sciences, Beijing 100049, China
  • Received:2011-03-08 Revised:2011-08-18 Online:2012-02-20 Published:2012-02-20

摘要: 第二代生物燃料生产技术已发展起来,有关生物液体燃料发展的环境影响研究,毁誉参半、争论激烈。论文在查阅大量国内外相关文献的基础上,评述了生物液体燃料的发展进程及其对温室气体减排、水土资源及生物多样性等方面的影响,并就生物液体燃料环境影响的研究趋势与发展方向进行了讨论。研究认为:①一些学者认为,就温室气体减排来看,尽管效益不同,但生物液体燃料均在一定程度上减轻了温室气体排放。也有学者认为生物液体燃料与化石燃料相比并没有减少温室气体排放,甚至更糟。②大规模的能源作物集约种植消耗了大量水资源,污染了地下水,破坏了土壤碳库,降低了土壤肥力,加剧了水土流失。此外,土地利用方式改变造成的潜在影响具有很大的不确定性。但也有研究表示选择合适的能源物种及科学的耕作方式也有可能对水土资源带来积极的影响。③生物液体燃料发展对生物多样性产生了危害,但恰当的管理方式亦可能带来正效益。导致研究结论差异巨大的原因主要在于研究角度与尺度不同、研究方法的复杂性和数据的精度及可获得性等。明确边界、统一路径,细化指标、规范标准,系统分析、定量评价应是生物液体燃料的环境影响研究的发展方向。

关键词: 生物燃料, 生物柴油, 环境效应, 温室气体

Abstract: With the fast development of biofuel industry, high-energy input in large-scale cultivation of energy crops and agricultural land use change have brought series of potential environmental impacts. After reading much relevant literature, this paper introduces the general development of biofuel, summarizes the environmental impact of biofuel development in the world, such as the greenhouse gas emission, land use change, the impact of water and soil resources and biodiversity. 1) Some scholars believe that despite the benefit is different, the biofuel, to a certain extent, reduces greenhouse gas emissions. However, some scholars believe the biofuel doesn't reduce greenhouse gas emissions compared with fossil fuel, even worse. 2) The development of biofuel causes great potential environmental impact on land use, but the impact is of great uncertain. 3) Large-scale development of biofuel affects the quality of soil and water resources, and is harmful to biodiversity. But the appropriate management may bring positive benefits. 4) The research results are various as the study angle and scale, methodology, data accuracy and accessibility are very different. The development of biofuel and its environmental impact are extremely controversial. The purpose of this paper is to introduce the present situation and lack of biofuel study. Furthermore, the development prospect and research focus of biofuel are projected.

Key words: biofuel, bio-diesel, environmental impact, green-house gas

中图分类号: 

  • TK6