自然资源学报 ›› 2011, Vol. 26 ›› Issue (7): 1199-1208.doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2011.07.012

• 资源评价 • 上一篇    下一篇

1961—2006年东北地区农业气候资源变化特征

何永坤1, 郭建平2   

  1. 1. 重庆市气象科学研究所, 重庆 401147;
    2. 中国气象科学研究院,北京 100081
  • 收稿日期:2010-04-30 修回日期:2011-02-28 出版日期:2011-07-20 发布日期:2011-07-20
  • 作者简介:何永坤(1965- ),四川西充人,硕士,高级工程师,主要从事作物气象、病虫害气象、农业气象灾害等方面的研究与服务工作。E-mail: hykcq@163.com
  • 基金资助:

    中国气象局气候变化专项(CCSF-09-12)。

Characteristics of Agricultural Climate Resources in the Three Provinces of Northeast China from 1961 to 2006

HE Yong-kun1, GUO Jian-ping2   

  1. 1. Chongqing Institute of Meteorological Science, Chongqing 401147, China;
    2. Chinese Academy of Meteorological Sciences, Beijing 100081, China
  • Received:2010-04-30 Revised:2011-02-28 Online:2011-07-20 Published:2011-07-20

摘要: 应用1961—2006年中国东北三省72个气象台站的气象资料,统计分析了东北三省稳定农耕期、生长期及积温、降水量、日照时数农业气候资源的变化特征,结果表明:研究期间,东北三省平均农耕期、生长期分别延长了2.4 d·10 a-1、2.3 d·10 a-1;经Mann-Kendall检验,农耕期长度、生长期长度分别在1988年、1992年发生突变。46 a东北三省积温表现为一致的增多趋势,降水量、日照时数呈减少趋势。分析比较突变年前后两个时段的农业气候资源变化,农耕期、生长期平均积温高值区向东、向北扩展;农耕期降水量高值区、低值区面积萎缩,中值区向东南方向扩张,生长期降水量中高值区面积减少;农耕期平均日照时数呈现高值区、低值区面积减少,而生长期日照时数呈现高值区、低值区面积增大的特点。

关键词: 东北三省, 农业气候资源, 界限温度, 气候倾向率, 突变检验

Abstract: Based on the meteorological data at 72 meteorological stations from 1961 to 2006 in three provinces of Northeast China, the variation characteristics of agro-climatic resources including stable farming stage, the growing period, accumulated temperature, precipitation and sunshine hours were analyzed. The results showed that the average farming stage and growing period prolonged for 2.4 days and 2.3 days per one decade, respectively. The M-K test results showed that the mutation time of the farming stage and the growing period was 1988 and 1992, respectively. Accumulated temperatures increased consistently in 46 years, with the climatic variation trend of 63.2 ℃·d·10 a-1 and 58.6 ℃·d·10 a-1 in the corresponding two periods. In 1961-2006, there were decreasing trends in both farming stage and growing season’s precipitation, especially in the southern part of Liaoning Province. The climatic variation rates of two stages were-7.1 mm·10 a-1 and -6.2 mm·10 a-1 respectively. The decreasing rate of sunshine hours in the corresponding two periods were -10.3 h·10 a-1 and -5.1 h·10 a-1, and the decreasing trends were much more obvious in the northwestern part of Jilin and Liaoning provinces. However, sunshine hours increased in the northern pare of Heilongjiang Province. Compared with the change characteristic in 1961-1987, average accumulated temperature increased by 172 ℃·d in the farming stage in 1988-2006. The area with accumulated temperature ≥3200 ℃ moved eastward and northward by about 11.8×104 km2. Meanwhile, the average accumulated temperature in 1992-2006 increased by 156.9 ℃·d in growing season compared with those in 1961-1991. The border of the belt with accumulated temperature ≥2 800 ℃·d moved northeastward by about 7.79×104 km2. In general, precipitation in most research areas decreased, but increased in some parts of Heilongjiang. The average precipitation decreased by 15.5 mm in the farming stage. The high and low value regions narrowed to some degrees, while the regions with moderate value of 500-650 mm expanded southeastward by about 4.5×104 km2. Average precipitation in growing season decreased by 13.8 mm. The regions with the value of ≥400 mm reduced by about 3.39×104 km2, especially in the eastern part of Heilongjiang Province and the southern part of Liaoning Province. There was no significant change of sunshine hours in the farming stage, however, the spatial difference was obvious with high and low density areas decreasing while middle density areas increasing. The area with sunshine hours of 1500-1800 h expanded by 11.8×104 km2 in the farming stage, but the average sunshine hours decreased by 27.9 h in the growing period in 1992-2006. The area with sunshine hours of 1000-1300 h narrowed by 5.25×104 km2 in the growing period. Moreover, the increasing areas were mainly distributed in eastern and western parts of Heilongjiang Province.

Key words: three provinces of Northeast China, agro-climatic resources, critical temperature, climatic variation trend, mutation test

中图分类号: 

  • S162