自然资源学报 ›› 2011, Vol. 26 ›› Issue (5): 858-870.doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2011.05.013

• 资源评价 • 上一篇    下一篇

1951—2008年东北地区水分盈亏量时空格局

曾丽红1,2, 宋开山1, 张柏1   

  1. 1. 中国科学院 东北地理与农业生态研究所,长春 13001;
    2. 中国科学院 研究生院,北京 100049
  • 收稿日期:2010-03-01 修回日期:2010-11-21 出版日期:2011-05-20 发布日期:2011-05-20
  • 通讯作者: 宋开山,博士,副研究员。E-mail:songks@neigae.ac.cn E-mail:songks@neigae.ac.cn
  • 作者简介:曾丽红(1983- ),女,湖南邵阳人,博士研究生,主要从事资源环境遥感研究。E-mail:lihonghello@163.com
  • 基金资助:

    中国科学院知识创新工程重要方向项目"东北地区土壤湿度与积雪参量微波遥感反演研究"(KZCX2-YW-341)。

Spatial and Temporal Structure of Water Deficitover Northeast China during the Period of 1951-2008

ZENG Li-hong1,2, SONG Kai-shan1, ZHANG Bai1   

  1. 1. Northeast Institute of Geography and Agricultural Ecology, CAS, Changchun 13001;
    2. Graduate University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, China
  • Received:2010-03-01 Revised:2010-11-21 Online:2011-05-20 Published:2011-05-20

摘要: 基于1951—2008年东北地区106个气象站点的实测数据,利用Penman-Monteith公式计算潜在蒸散量,并将气候水分盈亏量表示为同期降水量与潜在蒸散量之差。最后,通过Kendall秩次相关趋势分析、Morlet小波函数、Mann-Kendall突变检验等方法探讨了东北地区水分盈亏量的时空变化特征。结果表明:①1951—2008年,东北地区多年平均水分盈亏量在-850~650 mm之间变化,呈自东向西、自北向南、自东北向西南逐渐减少的空间变化趋势;②东北地区106个气象站点中有97个站点的水分盈亏量呈下降趋势,其中28个站点的下降趋势能通过P<0.05的显著性检验;③全区平均、海拉尔、长春、宽甸年际波动明显,多年平均值依次为-283.60、-427.25、-362.58、334.91 mm,四者的水分盈亏量年内分配不均匀,最小值出现在5月,最大值出现在7—8月;④水分盈亏量存在周期结构性,偏高期、偏低期交替出现,全区平均、海拉尔、长春、宽甸的第一主周期依次为26、28、25、9 a,水分盈亏量还具有突变特征,全区平均在1999年发生了一次减少突变,长春在1958、1998年各发生了一次减少突变。

关键词: 水分盈亏, 潜在蒸散量, Penman-Monteith公式, 东北地区

Abstract: Based on measured meteorological data obtained from 106 stations located in Northeast China, potential evapotranspiration was calculated by applying Penman-Monteith equation, and water deficit was expressed as the difference of precipitation and potential evapotranspiration at the same period. Finally, spatial and temporal variation characteristics of water deficit over Northeast China were analyzed by using Kendall rank-related trend analysis, Morlet wavelet function and Mann-Kendall abrupt test. The results showed that: 1) during the period from 1951 to 2008, multi-year average water deficit over Northeast China varied between -850 mm and 650 mm with the spatial variation pattern of decreasing gradually from east to west, from north to south and from northeast to southwest. 2) Among all the 106 meteorological stations located in Northeast China, there were 97 stations showed declining trends in yearly water deficit, and the declining trends of 28 stations could even pass the significance test at the level of P<0.05. 3) Yearly water deficits of the whole region, Hailar, Changchun and Kuandian fluctuated obviously with the multi-year average water deficit for each were -283.60 mm, -427.25 mm, -362.58 mm and 334.91 mm, and monthly water deficit of them was uneven with the minimum value appearing in May and the maximum value in July or August. 4) Yearly water deficit had periodic characteristic, water deficit of the whole region, Hailar, Changchun and Kuandian showed "higher period", "lower period" alternately with the main period of 26, 28, 25 and 9 years, respectively. Moreover, water deficit also had abrupt property as other meteorological factors, water deficit of the whole region showed an abrupt decrease in 1999, while Changchun showed two abrupt decrease events which happed in 1958 and 1998.

Key words: Northeast China, water deficit, potential evapotranspiration, Penman-Monteith equation

中图分类号: 

  • P333.1