自然资源学报 ›› 2010, Vol. 25 ›› Issue (10): 1806-1812.doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2010.10.018

• 专题论坛 • 上一篇    

能源供应安全视角下中印生物质能源利用的比较

徐向阳   

  1. 中国矿业大学(北京),北京100083
  • 收稿日期:2010-05-14 修回日期:2010-07-07 出版日期:2010-10-20 发布日期:2010-10-20
  • 作者简介:徐向阳(1962- ),女,天津市人,副教授,博士,主要研究碳融资与亚洲发展中国家能源环境政策。
  • 基金资助:

    国家自然科学基金(70941035)

Comparative Study Biomass Utilization in China and India from the Perspective of Energy Supply Security

XU Xiang-yang   

  1. China University of Mining and Technology (Beijing), Beijing 100083, China
  • Received:2010-05-14 Revised:2010-07-07 Online:2010-10-20 Published:2010-10-20

摘要: 中国和印度是世界上两个人口最多的国家,中印两国作为世界上两个能源消费大国,如何满足众多人口和经济快速增长对能源的需求,以及提供安全的能源供应是中国和印度都在考虑并试图解决的紧迫问题,分析印度的生物能源利用政策对我国有重要的现实意义和参考价值。我国在1993年成为石油净进口国,1994年我国进口的原油仅为290×104 t,进口依赖度为1.9%。到2009年我国石油净进口量为21 888.5×104 t,进口原油的依赖度上升到了52.5%。我国日益增加的对国际石油市场的依赖对我国能源安全供应构成了极大的风险和挑战。我国在"十一五"期间,在生物质能源的利用上取得了很大的成绩。但还存在一些问题,主要问题是原料来源和成本不稳定、缺乏统筹规划、发电上网制度不完善、相关政策配套措施和实施细则不完善等因素在一定程度上影响了生物质能产业的发展。印度政府积极支持的生物质利用技术,包括利用清洁发展机制大量开发的生物质能CDM项目,这类项目大约占印度全部注册CDM项目的三分之一左右。印度从能源多元化供应的角度和扶持乡村可持续发展的角度上开发利用生物质能项目的实践是值得我国借鉴的。

关键词: 能源安全, 印度, 生物质能

Abstract: As both China and India are two countries with huge population and energy consumption, how to meet the increase demand for energy with the quick increase of population and economic growth and how to provide energy security supply are urgent issues under consideration. It has important practical and reference meaning for China to analyze the biomass energy policy of India. Since 1993 when China first became the net crude oil import country, the imported amount crude oil of China was only 290×104 t in 2004, the dependency of imported crude oil was only 1.9%. In 2009, the imported amount crude oil of China was 21888.5×104 t, while the dependency of imported crude oil increased to be 52.5%. The increasing dependency for international oil market gives the big risk and challenge for Chinese energy security supply. China has made great achievements on biomass utilization during the period of the Eleventh Five-Year Plan, but there still exists some problems, the main problems are unreliable raw material source, unstable operation and management cost, lack of overall planning, electricity grid connection problems in some areas and needs to improve and match for related policy and operation details. All the above problems affect the development of Chinese biomass industry development. Indian government actively supported the biomass utilization technology, including make full use of Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) to support biomass CDM projects. The number of biomass CDM projects occupies 1/3 of total India registered CDM projects. The reason that Indian government paid so much effort to develop small scale biomass CDM project came from the consideration to diversify energy security supply and to eliminate poverty. India’s effort to develop biomass project under the perspective of diversify energy supply and to support rural sustainable development has reference meaning to China.

Key words: energy security, India, biomass energy

中图分类号: 

  • F206