自然资源学报 ›› 2008, Vol. 23 ›› Issue (5): 790-796.doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2008.05.006

• 资源利用与管理 • 上一篇    下一篇

三江平原湿地生态环境受威胁现状及其保育研究

赵魁义1, 娄彦景1,2, 胡金明1, 周德民1, 周晓亮3   

  1. 1. 中国科学院 东北地理与农业生态研究所 湿地与环境重点实验室,长春 130012;
    2. 中国科学院 研究生院,北京 100049;
    3. 黑龙江省洪河国家级自然保护区,黑龙江 洪河 154332
  • 收稿日期:2006-05-20 修回日期:2007-12-22 出版日期:2008-09-28 发布日期:2008-09-28
  • 作者简介:赵魁义(1937- ),男,吉林省长春人,研究员,博士生导师,湿地生态与生物多样性研究。E-mail: zhaokuiyi@neigae.ac.cn
  • 基金资助:

    国家自然科学基金项目(40301001);东北地理所知识创新工程领域前沿项目资助项目(KZCX3-SW-NA3-09)。

A Study of Current Status and Conservation of Threatened Wetland Ecological Environment in Sanjiang Plain

ZHAO Kui-yi1, LUO Yan-jing1,2, HU Jin-ming1, ZHOU De-min1, ZHOU Xiao-liang3   

  1. 1. Northeast Institute of Geography and Agricultural Ecology,CAS, Changchun 130012;
    2. Graduate University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, China;
    3. Heilongjiang Honghe National Nature Reserve, Honghe 154332, China
  • Received:2006-05-20 Revised:2007-12-22 Online:2008-09-28 Published:2008-09-28

摘要: 三江平原位于黑龙江省东北隅,是全国著名的面积最大的自然湿地集中分布区之一。经过近50年大面积开发,天然湿地面积约从原来的534×104hm2减少到113×104hm2,仅占本区土地总面积10.39%的现有湿地基本上镶嵌在大型现代化农场群的耕地之中。自然湿地大量丧失,湿地景观破碎化,受到水源不足、水质下降威胁;湿地变成"孤岛"。湿地功能退化,湿地植物丰度下降,生物生产量下降,濒危植物增加,濒危动物,特别是珍稀水禽数量逐年减少。湿地资源开发对区域环境的影响应引起重视。为了改变湿地受威胁、生态与环境退化现状,必须实施湿地恢复、保育工程:即引水灌溉工程、廊道建设工程和关爱湿地工程。

关键词: 湿地保育, 受危现状, 湿地生态环境, 三江平原

Abstract: Sanjiang Plain is one of the biggest centralized distributing area of wetlands in China. As a result of fifty-year large-scale reclamation, the area of wetlands decreases rapidly while that of the cultivated land increases greatly, the area of natural wetland decreased from 5340000 ha in 1949 to 1130000 ha in 2000, only accounting for 10.39% of the whole area . Due to the fragmentation of wetland itself, it is confronted with shortage of water source, and is becoming isolated islands. At the same time, the degradation of wetland function is also serious,such as the decrease of the species richness of wetland plants, the reduction of the bio-productivity, the increase of the species number of endangered plants, the annual decrease of the number of endangered animals, especially rare waterfowl. The reclamation of wetland resource has a certain impact on regional environment, such as the aggravation of soil erosion, the increase of the content of soil granules, the evident decline of soil fertility, even the occurrence of desertification locally, the rise of temperature,reduction of precipitation and the increase of drought occurrence frequency.In order to reverse this situation, the conservation engineering progects of wetlands must be implemented, including irrigation project, habitat corridor construction project and showing care for wetland project.

Key words: wetland conservation, threatened situation, ecological environment, Sanjiang Plain

中图分类号: 

  • Q149