自然资源学报 ›› 2008, Vol. 23 ›› Issue (4): 568-574.doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2008.04.003

• 资源利用与管理 • 上一篇    下一篇

湿地退耕还湿与替代生计选择的农民响应研究——以三江自然保护区为例

张春丽1,2, 佟连军1, 刘继斌3,4   

  1. 1. 中国科学院 东北地理与农业生态研究所,长春 130012;
    2. 中国科学院 研究生院,北京 100049;
    3. 东北师范大学 城市与环境科学学院,长春 130024;
    4. 吉林省城乡规划设计研究院,长春130061
  • 收稿日期:2007-08-31 修回日期:2007-11-26 出版日期:2008-07-28 发布日期:2008-07-28
  • 作者简介:张春丽(1979- ),女,博士,主要从事环境发展与湿地科学研究。
  • 基金资助:

    GEF,中国湿地生物多样性保护与可持续利用(CPR/98/G32);国家自然科学基金(40601027)。

Response of Farmers to Conversion of Cultivated Land to Wetland and Substitute Livelihood—A Case of Sanjiang Reserve

ZHANG Chun-li1,2, TONG Lian-jun1, LIU Ji-bin3,4   

  1. 1. Northeast Institute of Geography and Agricultural Ecology, CAS, Changchun 130012;
    2. Graduate University of Chinese Academy of Sciences,Beijing 100049, China;
    3. Department of Urban and Environment Science, Northeast Normal University, Changchun 13002;
    4. Urban and Country Planning and Design Institute of Jilin Province, Changchun 130061, China
  • Received:2007-08-31 Revised:2007-11-26 Online:2008-07-28 Published:2008-07-28

摘要: 通过对三江自然保护区核心区内6个村屯和实验区内5个村屯的310家农户家庭就退耕还湿和替代生计选择的问卷调查分析发现,在退耕还湿问题上,不同区域位置、年龄结构和耕地拥有量决定了他们对退耕还湿支持意愿的不同,表现在实验区内的农民和农民中的年轻人支持率要高,耕地在6~12hm2之间的农民支持率最低;农民反对退耕还湿的原因和农民接受退耕还湿的补偿选择都凝结着农民对现有耕地及补偿制度的思考。在替代生计选择上,当地居民没有明确的目标,多倾向于有保障的种植业调整。研究表明:农民对退耕还湿的支持主要取决于能否保证自身的经济利益,并且与农民的收入来源和谋生能力有关;替代生计发展的不健全和不稳定,使得农民仍把土地作为重要的生活保障。缺乏明确的退耕还湿补偿制度和替代生计引导是退耕还湿实施的制度障碍和政策缺失;基于当地农民考虑,提出了核心区生态移民、缓冲区传统农业改造和实验区多元化产业发展总体替代生计模式。

关键词: 退耕还湿, 替代生计, 农民响应, 三江自然保护区

Abstract: Based on investigation on 310 households of 5 farmers located in core zone and 6 farmers of buffer zone of Sanjiang reserve of Heilongjiang in China, and analyses of response of farmers on conversion of cultivated land to wetland and substitute livelihood,we found farmers’s have different responses to conversion of cultivated land to wetland and substitute livelihood. In terms of conversion of arable land to wetland, this article presents findings of an in-depth study, that is, farmers’ response to cultivated land conversion is related to age, quantity of cultivated land and residential site. By comparison with these aspects, the result reveals that the youngsters and farmers lived in buffer zone prefer to it, but the supporting rate of those who own land between 6 and 12 ha is very low. The reasons of villagers opposing it are that they take the cultivated land as an important income source, and have no other living skills and enough money used in other industries. Other reasons agreeing with it include obtaining cash compensation, new training or new jobs opportunities, steady non-agricultural income and equivalent land replacement. As for substitute livelihood, most have no specific object, but they tend to select farming. The study indicates that the importance of wetland is recognized by most farmers, hereby, whether farmers agree with conversion of cultivated land to wetland or not, the supporting rate is still determined by the economic benefits of farmers sustained, moreover it is related to income source and living ability of farmers. In addition,the arable land is regarded as the existent safeguard by farmers because substitute livelihood is uncertain and unsteady. On second thoughts, the compensation system of conversion of arable land to wetland hasn’t come forth and substitute livelihood hasn’t been put forward, which are the holdback of conversion of arable land to wetland. Finally, based on consideration of regional environment, economic level and farmers’ needs, this article puts forwards the sustainable substitute livelihood models which are the ecological transmigrates in core zone, the traditional agriculture alteration in buffer zone and multi-industry model in experimental zone.

Key words: conversion of arable land to wetland, substitute livelihood, response of farmers, Sanjiang Reserve

中图分类号: 

  • F301.24