自然资源学报 ›› 2008, Vol. 23 ›› Issue (1): 79-86.doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2008.01.009

• 资源生态 • 上一篇    下一篇

黑龙江省近50年来沼泽湿地退缩特征及其原因分析

宁静1,2,3, 张树文1, 李颖1, 王蕾1,2,4   

  1. 1. 中国科学院 东北地理与农业生态研究所,长春 130032;
    2. 中国科学院 研究生院,北京100049;
    3. 东北农业大学 资源与环境学院,哈尔滨 150030;
    4. 黑龙江省科技学院 建筑工程学院,哈尔滨 150000
  • 收稿日期:2006-10-23 修回日期:2007-10-09 出版日期:2008-02-01 发布日期:2008-02-01
  • 作者简介:宁静(1978- ),女,黑龙江哈尔滨人,讲师,博士生,主要研究方向为3S技术应用和景观生态学。
  • 基金资助:

    中国科学院知识创新工程重要方向项目"东北100年LUCC及其生态环境效应研究"(KZCX2-SW-320-1)。

Analysis on Wetland Shrinking Characteristics and Its Cause in Heilongjiang Province for the Last 50 Years

NING Jing1,2,3, ZHANG Shu-wen1, LI Ying1, WANG Lei1,2,4   

  1. 1. Northeast Institute of Geography and Agricultural Ecology, CAS, Changchun 130012;
    2. Graduate University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, China;
    3. Resources and Environmental Sciences College of Northeast Agricultural University, Harbin 150030, China;
    4. College of Architecture and Civil Engineering, USTH, Harbin 15000, China
  • Received:2006-10-23 Revised:2007-10-09 Online:2008-02-01 Published:2008-02-01

摘要: 在RS和GIS的支持下,综合集成1954年地形图和2000年TM影像重建黑龙江省1954~2000年沼泽湿地的空间信息矢量数据,结合斑块质心变化模型、景观参数和欧几里德最短距离函数,分析黑龙江省沼泽湿地退缩的区域分异特征,进一步从人类活动对沼泽退缩的影响的角度探讨沼泽退缩的原因。研究结果表明:黑龙江省近50年来,沼泽湿地面积急剧减少,由791.4×104hm2减少到303.5×104hm2;沼泽景观趋于破碎化;退缩的焦点区域主要集中在三江平原、大小兴安岭和松嫩平原。导致湿地退缩的人文原因主要包括三个方面:人口增加和耕地的不断开垦,国家建设国营农场的农业发展政策,与主要公路的空间区位关系。

关键词: 沼泽湿地, 退缩, 景观参数, 人类活动

Abstract: Based on RS and GIS technology, the paper studied the spatial characteristics of marsh change in Heilongjiang Province and analyzed the influence of human activities on marsh. What’s more, we knew of the spatial characteristics of marsh in the field of administration planning. The authors reconstructed spatial data of wetlands from 1954 to 2000 by integrating topographic map in 1954 and TM image in 2000 in Heilongjiang Province. Furthermore, combining patch centroid change model, landscape parameters and Euclid shortest-path function, we analyzed marsh shrinking characteristics and regularity of regional differentiation, and further discussed the cause of marsh shrinking in the perspective of the impact of human activities on marsh shrinking. The results showed that: area of wetlands had dramatically decreased from 7.914 million ha to 3.035 million ha in Heilongjiang Province for the last 50 years; in general, the centroid of marsh moved to the northwest of Heilongjiang Province, which showed that marsh shrinking maily occurred in the northeast; marsh landscape went to fragmentation; the shrinking areas were mainly concentrated in the Sanjiang Plain, Songnen Plain, Da Xing’an Mountains and Xiao Xing’an Mountains. There are three major humanity reasons which led to marsh shrinking: population growth and constant land reclamation; farm development policy of building state farm; and the spatial relationship between wetland shrinking and major highways.

Key words: marsh, shrinking, landscape parameters, human activities

中图分类号: 

  • P931.7