自然资源学报 ›› 2006, Vol. 21 ›› Issue (5): 775-781.doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2006.05.011

• 资源生态 • 上一篇    下一篇

夏季东海北部近海鱼类群落结构变化

程家骅1,2, 丁峰元2, 李圣法2, 严利平2, 李建生2, 梁振林1   

  1. 1. 中国海洋大学,中国水产科学研究院东海水产研究所农业部海洋与河口渔业重点开放实验室,山东青岛266003;
    2. 中国水产科学研究院东海水产研究所,农业部海洋与河口渔业重点开放实验室,上海200090
  • 收稿日期:2006-01-18 修回日期:2006-02-22 出版日期:2006-10-25 发布日期:2006-10-25
  • 通讯作者: E-mail:iang@ouc.edu.cn E-mail:E-mail:iang@ouc.edu.cn
  • 作者简介:程家骅(1965),男,江苏人,研究员,主要从事渔业资源评估与管理研究。E-mail: ziyuan@sh163.net
  • 基金资助:

    国家科技部公益性研究项目;中国水产科学研究院基金项目;农业部海洋与河口渔业重点开放实验室开放课题(开-1-04-03)

Changes of Fish Community Structure in the Coastal Zone of the Northern Part of East China Sea in Summer

CHENG Jia-hua1,2, DING Feng-yuan2, LI Sheng-fa2, YAN Li-ping2, LI Jian-sheng2, LING Zhen-lin1   

  1. 1. Ocean Univerity of China,Qingdao 266003,China;
    2. Key and Open Laboratory of Marine and Estuarine Fisheries,Ministry of Agriculture,East China Sea Fisheries Research Institute,Chinese Academy of Fishery Sciences,Shanghai 200090,China
  • Received:2006-01-18 Revised:2006-02-22 Online:2006-10-25 Published:2006-10-25

摘要: 根据1964、1982、1999和2005年6月渔业生物资源底拖网监测资料,分析了东海北部近海鱼类群落结构的变化。结果表明,1964、1982、1999和2005年间,4次监测中出现的鱼类种类数分别为64、78、64和47种;4次监测中主要优势种类均为带鱼,但其资源量正逐渐降低;其它优势种类由20世纪60年代的底层优质鱼类,转变为80年代的中上层鱼类,随后转变为现在的群落结构简单、底层和中上层鱼类均较少的状况;鱼类生物多样性指数均呈现由1964年到1982年升高,随后又逐渐降低的趋势;1964—2005年间鱼类群落长度谱变化状况表明,该海域内的鱼类呈现小型种类和小个体增多,大个体减少,且长度范围变小的趋势。

关键词: 鱼类群落结构, 生物多样性, 长度谱, 东海北部近海, 夏季

Abstract: The coastal zone of the northern part of East China Sea was the spawning and feeding grounds for many species of fishes,and was one of the important marine fishing regions in China.But with fishing activity intensifying and overfishing,and seawater pollution deteriorating,the fish community structure changed consequentially in the last half century.Based on the data collected from bottom trawl surveys conducted in June of 1964,1982,1999 and 2005,the temporal changes of fish community structure in the coastal zone of the northern part of East China Sea(29°00'~31°30'N,123°00'~125°00'E)in summer were analyzed.The result showed that the similarity index of species composition decreased both in mean biomass and mean number in 2005,while the time intervals increased compared to the other three surveys.Though the fish mean biomass did not change significantly,the fish individual number increased during 1982 to 1999.Though the fish individual number was high,the small individuals increased during 1999 to 2005.The fish species number which appeared in June of 1964,1982,1999,and 2005 was 64,78,64,and 47,respectively.The dominant species were Trichiurus japonicus,Synagrops japonicus and Argyrosomus argentatus in June 1964;T.japonicus,Scomber japonicus,A.argentatus,Acropoma japonicum,Pampus cinereus,Apogon lineatus,Thamnaconus septentrionalis and Muraenesox cinereus in June 1982;T.japonicus,Sc.japonicus,A.lineatus,Engraulis japonicus,Larimichthys polyactis,Trachurus japonicus and Trachip-terus trachypterus in June 1999;and T.japonicus,Psenopsis anomala and L.polyactis in June 2005,respectively.The most dominant species was T.japonicus in these four surveys,but its stock was declining.The other dominant species changed from the high-valued demersal fishes in the 1960s to the pleagic fishes in the 1980s,and then changed to the present less demersal and pleagic fishes with simple fish community structure.The biodiversity index of fishes increased during the period of 1964 to 1982,but then decreased gradually.This change can be explained with the intermediate disturbance hypothesis.The fishing was in the moderate and full status in the surveyed area before the 1980s,then it was in over-fishing status,and this status was deteriorating year by year.The fish individual number with integrated community size spectra ≥20cm was decreasing from 1964 to 2005.The maximum and the minimum fish individual number with integrated community size spectra <20cm were in 1999 and 2005,respectively.These changes in integrated community size spectra indicated an increasing tendency in the number of small-sized species or small size individuals and a declining tendency in the number of large size individuals as well as a diminishing length range in the coastal zone of the northern part of East China Sea during 1964 to 2005.

Key words: fish community structure, biodiversity, size spectra of the integrated community, the coastal zone of the northern part of East China Sea, summer