自然资源学报 ›› 2006, Vol. 21 ›› Issue (5): 677-688.doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2006.05.001

• 资源管理 •    下一篇

森林生态效益补偿的研究现状与展望

李文华1,2, 李芬2, 李世东3, 刘某承1,4   

  1. 1. 中国科学院地理科学与资源研究所,北京100101;
    2. 中国人民大学环境学院,北京100872;
    3. 国家林业局办公厅,北京100714;
    4. 中国科学院研究生院,北京100049
  • 收稿日期:2006-01-27 修回日期:2006-05-19 出版日期:2006-10-25 发布日期:2006-10-25
  • 作者简介:李文华(1932),男,中国工程院院士,研究方向为生态学、生态经济学。
  • 基金资助:

    中国环境与发展国际合作委员会资助;中国生态效益补偿机制和政策研究课题

The Status and Prospect of Forest Ecological Benefit Compensation

LI Wen-hua1,2, LI Fen2, LI Shi-dong3, LIU Mou-Cheng1,4   

  1. 1. Insititute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resources Research,CAS,Beijing 100101,China;
    2. School of Environment and Natural Resources,Renmin University of China,Beijing 100872,China;
    3. Office,State Forestry Administration,Beijing 100714,China;
    4. Graduate University of Chinese Academy of Sciences,Beijing 100049,China
  • Received:2006-01-27 Revised:2006-05-19 Online:2006-10-25 Published:2006-10-25

摘要: 由于森林的生态效益外部性和公共物品的特性,较大部分难以通过传统的市场实现其经济价值。如何通过适当的措施将森林生态效益外部性内部化,部分或全部地实现森林生态效益的价值,对森林生态效益的提供者进行补偿,吸引全社会参与森林的保护与培育,即如何用经济杠杆解决森林生态效益的外部性和公平性,是急需解决的问题,也是当前国内外生态经济学研究的一个热点和难点问题。通过综合分析相关文献,理清生态效益补偿的概念,对森林生态效益补偿展开研究和探讨。对发达国家的森林生态效益补偿的理论和实践经验进行总结归纳,为我国建立森林生态效益补偿机制提供借鉴。分析国内森林生态效益补偿的具体实践,得出我国森林生态效益补偿制度中需要完善的方面。最后,提出我国今后森林生态效益补偿制度工作的研究方向。

关键词: 生态效益补偿, 森林, 制度, 展望

Abstract: Forest is one of the most important terrestrial ecosystems on the earth.Besides supplying timber and other goods,forest has vital effect on environment and provides significant ecological services for people.However,a larger part of the value of those ecological services could not be realized via market transactions.This market-failure creates a need for seeking governmental intervention to solve the positive externality of forest ecological benefits.It is crucial to establish eco-compensation mechanism which has become one of the hot spots in the field of ecological economic studies.This is particularly important in China,which possesses limited forest resources and a large population.With rapid economic development,resources over-exploitation and environmental deterioration have become a bottleneck to the socio-economic development in China,and forest resources loss is believed to be closely associated with ecological and environmental degradations.Therefore,forest conservation has gained increasingly attention and the Chinese government has taken a series of actions to protect forest resources.Based on relevant literature review,this paper makes clear the conception of forest ecological benefit compensation and introduces the current domestic and international researches on this issue.Through the analysis of theories and practices of forest ecological benefits compensation abroad,some inspirations are drawn on establishing the forest ecological benefits compensation mechanism,for examples:governmental investment,beneficiaries pay,market transition and institutional framework.Meanwhile,it is claimed that there are still many insufficiencies in the forest ecological benefit compensation of China such as non-clear concept of eco-compensation,lack of scientific bases for accounting method and systems,limited institutional experience,inadequate legal framework or supporting institutions and lack of farmers' participation.Based on the above analysis,it is considered that further researches on ecological compensation should be carried out.Finally,the policy recommendations are presented in the paper,including increasing governmental support,diversifying financing channels,improving mechanisms management,establishing legal framework,strengthening scientific research on standard-making and raising public awareness on ecological compensation.

Key words: ecological benefit compensation, forest, mechanism, prospect