自然资源学报 ›› 2006, Vol. 21 ›› Issue (3): 417-423.doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2006.03.011

• 资源管理 • 上一篇    下一篇

新公共管理对中国自然保护区管理的借鉴:以加拿大国家公园改革为例

张倩, 李文军   

  1. 北京大学环境学院环境科学系,北京100871
  • 收稿日期:2005-11-04 修回日期:2006-02-10 出版日期:2006-06-25 发布日期:2006-06-25
  • 作者简介:张倩(1977),女,内蒙古呼和浩特人,博士生,主要研究保护区管理和草原畜牧业可持续发展。E-mail:wjlee@pku.edu.cn
  • 基金资助:

    加拿大国际发展署CIDA

The Implementation of New Public Management in National Parks of Canada and Its Reference to China

ZHANG Qian, LI Wen-jun   

  1. The College of Environmental Sciences,Peking University,Beijing 100871,China
  • Received:2005-11-04 Revised:2006-02-10 Online:2006-06-25 Published:2006-06-25

摘要: 1994年,加拿大政府开始减少对国家公园的拨款,加拿大公园局相应进行一系列改革适应这一变化。表面看来,改革后的加拿大国家公园与中国自然保护区类似,其开支都由政府拨款和自身盈利共同承担。论文运用新公共管理理论和极域管理工具分析加拿大公园局改革背景、过程和效果后指出:两国保护区管理存在本质上的差异,加拿大是在行政管理成熟发展后引入市场机制以提高效率、降低成本,并通过一系列措施加强原有行政管理优势;而中国目前还没有在保护区管理中形成有效的行政管理体制,并缺少有效的法制体系和统一的行政机构规范保护区自我盈利行为,因此,必须十分谨慎地运用市场机制,以避免行政管理和市场管理两方面缺点结合,最终导致自然资源的破坏。

关键词: 自然资源管理, 新公共管理, 极域管理, 自然保护区, 国家公园

Abstract: Since the reformation in Parks Canada conducted after 1994,it seems like that there is a trend that national park administration in Canada has a superficial similarity with protected area management in China because both of them are supported jointly by the government appropriation from tax collection and the revenue from tourism businesses.However,there are tremendous differences in protected area management between Canada and China,including government support,management institutions and conditions for the reformation.Based on the interviews with different level officials of Parks Canada system and field survey in five national/provincial parks in Canada,this article reviewed the reformation in national parks management of Canada by using new public management(NPM) theory and polarity management tool.According to the Canadian experiences,it is proved that NPM could be applied in the public sectors responsible for natural resources management.It was implemented to eliminate the disadvantages of bureaucratic management after its full development,including X-inefficiency and expanding expenditure.The main content of the reformation had two aspects:one was to remove the disadvantages of bureaucratic management by decentralization and introducing market tools;and the other was to maintain the advantages of bureaucratic management by the application of User Fee Principle and Cost Recovery Principle,the improvement of legislations and regulations system and the strengthening of monitoring system.In this way,the advantages of both bureaucratic and market-oriented management were combined to achieve the protection of ecological integration.However,the protected areas in China began to introduce market tools before the establishment of perfect bureaucratic management.Because of the problems of fund shortage,defective legislations and regulation system and absence of a consolidated organization responsible for protected area management,the disadvantages of market tools could not be controlled effectively.Compared with the experiences of Parks Canada,it is very difficult to take full advantage of market tools in protected area management before the establishment of a perfect legislation and regulation system and a consolidated organization.Therefore,it is recommended for China that the market tools should be highly cautiously applied into the protected area management unless three conditions have been achieved:(a)the establishment of perfect legislations and regulations system and its implementation;(b)more financial support from government to protected areas;and(c)a consolidated bureaucratic administration responsible for protected areas.

Key words: natural sources management, new public management, polarity management, nature reserve, national park